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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The coexistence of tics and dystonia.

We studied nine patients with motor and phonic tics and other features of Tourette's syndrome, who developed persistent dystonia in addition to their tics. All, except one, were males (mean age, 35.8 years; range, 8 to 59 years), and had onset of tics prior to age 18 years (mean age, 9 years; range, 1.5 to 17 years). None of the patients were treated with neuroleptic drugs prior to the onset of dystonia. Torticollis and blepharospasm were the most common forms of dystonia. Seven patients had a history of tics in first degree relatives. While these patients were seen in a specialized movement disorder clinic and may, therefore, represent a population with atypical and more severe symptoms, the high prevalence rate of dystonia (5.0% of all patients with Tourette's syndrome seen in the clinic) suggests that some patients with tics may have an increased risk for dystonia.[1]


  1. The coexistence of tics and dystonia. Stone, L.A., Jankovic, J. Arch. Neurol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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