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Disease relevance of Blepharospasm


Psychiatry related information on Blepharospasm


High impact information on Blepharospasm


Chemical compound and disease context of Blepharospasm

  • Tetrabenazine, lithium, and trihexyphenidyl were most useful for the treatment of oromandibular dystonia, and clonazepam was useful in some patients with blepharospasm [1].
  • Two patients developed either blepharospasm or blepharospasm-oromandibular dystonia following chronic therapy with chlorpromazine, haloperidol, or thioridazine [15].
  • To test the safety and effectiveness of Doxil chemomyectomy in monkey eyelids using treatment schedules and doses similar to those proposed for the human blepharospasm patients in Phase I and II trials [5].
  • Episodic GH secretion reappeared 36 h after the last administration of reserpine, at which time the behavioral inhibition and blepharospasm induced by the drug was less pronounced than after 24 h, but brain levels of CAs and 5-HT were still markedly reduced [16].
  • Examination of orbicularis muscle from 10 patients with essential blepharospasm who received 2-18 injections of botulinum toxin 6 weeks to 3 years prior to surgery revealed characteristic nodal, terminal and ultraterminal "sprouting" of the motor axons [17].

Biological context of Blepharospasm


Anatomical context of Blepharospasm


Gene context of Blepharospasm


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Blepharospasm


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  2. Botulinum toxin as a therapeutic agent. Tsui, J.K. Pharmacol. Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. A familial syndrome of dystonia, blepharospasm, and pigmentary retinopathy. Coppeto, J.R., Lessell, S. Neurology (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. The coexistence of tics and dystonia. Stone, L.A., Jankovic, J. Arch. Neurol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Doxil-induced chemomyectomy: effectiveness for permanent removal of orbicularis oculi muscle in monkey eyelid. McLoon, L.K., Wirtschafter, J.D. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Primary blepharospasm: diagnosis and management. Defazio, G., Livrea, P. Drugs (2004) [Pubmed]
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  8. Successful risperidone rechallenge after blepharospasm in a patient with schizophrenia: 24-month follow-up. Gulati, S., Singh, A.N., Libretto, S.E. J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Influence of tiapride on platelet counts in healthy volunteers and patients with movement disorders. Kotzailias, N., Finsterer, J., Aull, S., Eichler, H.G., Pratscher, B., Jilma, B. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
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  11. Decongestant-induced blepharospasm and orofacial dystonia. Powers, J.M. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Treatment of blepharospasm with nicotine nasal spray. Dursun, S.M., Hewitt, S., King, A.L., Reveley, M.A. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Saccade responses to dopamine in human MPTP-induced parkinsonism. Hotson, J.R., Langston, E.B., Langston, J.W. Ann. Neurol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Blepharospasm: successful treatment with clonazepam. Merikangas, J.R., Reynolds, C.F. Ann. Neurol. (1979) [Pubmed]
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  16. Monoaminergic control of episodic growth hormone secretion in the rat: effects of reserpine, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, p-chlorophenylalanine, and haloperidol. Edén, S., Bolle, P., Modigh, K. Endocrinology (1979) [Pubmed]
  17. Motor nerve sprouting in human orbicularis muscle after botulinum A injection. Holds, J.B., Alderson, K., Fogg, S.G., Anderson, R.L. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Memory-contingent saccades and the substantia nigra postulate for essential blepharospasm. Hotson, J.R., Boman, D.R. Brain (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. A polymorphism in the dopamine receptor DRD5 is associated with blepharospasm. Misbahuddin, A., Placzek, M.R., Chaudhuri, K.R., Wood, N.W., Bhatia, K.P., Warner, T.T. Neurology (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Management of bladder, prostatic and pelvic floor disorders with botulinum neurotoxin. Maria, G., Cadeddu, F., Brisinda, D., Brandara, F., Brisinda, G. Current medicinal chemistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Blepharospasm: a review of 264 patients. Grandas, F., Elston, J., Quinn, N., Marsden, C.D. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Life-threatening cranial dystonia following trihexyphenidyl withdrawal. Giménez-Roldán, S., Mateo, D., Martín, M. Mov. Disord. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in primary blepharospasm. Federico, F., Simone, I.L., Lucivero, V., Defazio, G., De Salvia, R., Mezzapesa, D.M., Petruzzellis, M., Tortorella, C., Livrea, P. Neurology (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Quantification of muscle loss in the doxorubicin-treated orbicularis oculi of the monkey. Effect of local injection of doxorubicin into the eyelid. McLoon, L.K., Bauer, G., Wirtschafter, J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Auditory brain-stem responses in blepharospasm. Creel, D.J., Holds, J.B., Anderson, R.L. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Fatal case of BOTOX-related anaphylaxis? Li, M., Goldberger, B.A., Hopkins, C. J. Forensic Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Dystonia in Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and progressive supranuclear palsy. Rivest, J., Quinn, N., Marsden, C.D. Neurology (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Supranuclear disturbances of ocular motility in Lytico-Bodig. Lepore, F.E., Steele, J.C., Cox, T.A., Tillson, G., Calne, D.B., Duvoisin, R.C., Lavine, L., McDarby, J.V. Neurology (1988) [Pubmed]
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  30. Torticollis and blepharospasm in systemic lupus erythematosus. Rajagopalan, N., Humphrey, P.R., Bucknall, R.C. Mov. Disord. (1989) [Pubmed]
  31. Animal model explains the origins of the cranial dystonia benign essential blepharospasm. Schicatano, E.J., Basso, M.A., Evinger, C. J. Neurophysiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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  33. Oral rehabilitation with osseointegrated implants in a patient with oromandibular dystonia with blepharospasm (Brueghel's syndrome): a patient history. Peñarrocha, M., Sanchis, J.M., Rambla, J., Sánchez, M.A. The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Glucose hypometabolism in medial frontal cortex of patients with apraxia of lid opening. Suzuki, Y., Kiyosawa, M., Ohno, N., Mochizuki, M., Inaba, A., Mizusawa, H., Ishii, K., Senda, M. Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Safety, effectiveness, and duration of effect of BOTOX after switching from Dysport for blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, and hemifacial spasm dystonia, and hemifacial spasm. Bihari, K. Current medical research and opinion. (2005) [Pubmed]
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