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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Phase I/II study of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for treatment of metastatic adenocarcinoma.

Leucovorin enhances the cytotoxicity of fluorouracil (5-FU) in patients with colorectal cancer and may increase the efficacy of combination chemotherapy regimens containing 5-FU. To determine the maximum tolerated dose of 5-FU with leucovorin for use in combination with cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin, we conducted a phase I/II trial in 20 patients. The doses of leucovorin (200 mg/m2 on days 1-5), cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m2 on day 1), and doxorubicin (40 mg/m2 on day 1) were held constant, while the dose of 5-FU was escalated in cohorts of patients beginning at 150 mg/m2 on days 1-5. Cycles were repeated every 3 weeks. Significant mucositis, diarrhea, and myelosuppression were infrequently observed in patients receiving up to 250 mg/m2 5-FU on days 1-5. In contrast, at a dose of 300 mg/m2 on days 1-5, three of six patients had granulocyte count nadirs of less than 500/microL during the first cycle of therapy, and two of these three had platelet counts of less than 25,000/microL. In addition, two patients treated at this dose had significant mucosal toxic effects, and three had insufficient recovery to permit a second course by day 22. Among 14 patients with assessable breast cancer, there were one complete and nine partial responses (response rate 71%). Leucovorin modulation of 5-FU can be safely incorporated into combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin and provides a highly active regimen for treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Further study will be required to determine whether the addition of leucovorin significantly enhances the activity of this regimen.[1]


  1. Phase I/II study of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for treatment of metastatic adenocarcinoma. Parnes, H.L., Abrams, J.S., Tait, N., Minford, J., Allen, S.L., Duggan, D., Aisner, J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1991) [Pubmed]
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