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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Binding of vascular anticoagulant alpha (VAC alpha) to planar phospholipid bilayers.

Vascular anticoagulant alpha (VAC alpha, annexin V) is a member of the family of calcium and phospholipid binding proteins, the annexins. The binding properties of VAC alpha to phospholipid bilayers were studied by ellipsometry. Adsorption was calcium-dependent and completely reversible upon calcium depletion. Half-maximal adsorptions to phospholipid bilayers consisting of 100, 20, 5, and 1% dioleoyl-phosphatidylserine (DOPS) supplemented with dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) were reached at Ca2+ concentrations of 0.04, 0.22, 1.5, and 8.6 mM. These surfaces all showed the same maximal adsorption of 0.22 +/- 0.01 micrograms of VAC alpha/cm2 (mean +/- S.D.). The adsorption to bilayers containing more than 10% DOPS was independent of VAC alpha concentrations in the range of 0.5-100 nM. Dissociation constants for VAC alpha binding to these surfaces were estimated to be below 2 x 10(-10) M. No adsorption was observed on pure DOPC bilayers at a Ca2+ concentration of 3 mM. The ability to mediate VAC alpha binding to 20% DOPS/80% DOPC bilayers was highly specific for Ca2+. The use of other divalent cations resulted in decreased binding in the order Cd2+ greater than Zn2+ greater than Mn2+ greater than Co2+ greater than Ba2+ greater than Mg2+. Zinc ions had a synergistic effect on Ca2(+)-dependent VAC alpha binding. The Ca2+ concentration needed for half-maximal binding to cardiolipin, dioleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol, DOPS, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidic acid, dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin increased in that order. Adsorption was independent of the overall surface charge of the phospholipid membrane.[1]


  1. Binding of vascular anticoagulant alpha (VAC alpha) to planar phospholipid bilayers. Andree, H.A., Reutelingsperger, C.P., Hauptmann, R., Hemker, H.C., Hermens, W.T., Willems, G.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
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