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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Glucuronidation of Anticancer Prodrug PR-104A: Species Differences, Identification of Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases, and Implications for Therapy.

PR-104, the phosphate ester of a dinitrobenzamide mustard [PR-104A; 2-((2-bromoethyl)-2-{[(2-hydroxyethyl) amino] carbonyl}-4,6-dinitroanilino)ethyl methanesulfonate], is currently in clinical trial as a hypoxia- and aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3)-activated prodrug for cancer therapy. Here, we investigate species (human, dog, rat, mouse) differences in metabolism to the corresponding O-glucuronide, PR-104G, and identify the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms responsible. After intravenous PR-104, plasma area under the concentration-time curve ratios (PR-104G/PR-104A) decreased in the order of dog (2.3) > human (1.3) > mouse (0.03) > rat (0.005). The kinetics of uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronic acid-dependent glucuronidation by liver microsomes in vitro fitted the single-enzyme Michaelis-Menten equation with similar K(m) (∼150 μM) but differing V(max) (472, 88, 37, and 14 nmol/h/mg for dog, human, rat, and mouse, respectively), suggesting that facile glucuronidation is responsible for the anomalously rapid clearance of PR-104A in dogs. In vitro-in vivo extrapolation of PR-104A glucuronidation kinetics is consistent with this also being a major clearance pathway in humans. Recombinant UGT screening identified UGT2B7 as the only commercially available human isoform able to conjugate PR-104A, and UGT2B7 protein concentrations were highly correlated (r = 0.93) with PR-104A glucuronidation by liver microsomes from 24 individuals. The active hydroxylamine metabolite of PR-104A, PR-104H, was also glucuronidated by UGT2B7, although with slightly lower specificity and much lower rates. UGT2B7 mRNA expression was highly variable in human tumor databases. Glucuronidation of PR-104A greatly suppressed nitroreduction by AKR1C3 and NADPH-supplemented anoxic human liver S9 (9000g postmitochondrial supernatant). In conclusion, PR-104A is glucuronidated by UGT2B7 with high specificity and seems to make a major contribution to clearance of PR-104A in humans, but it also has the potential to confer resistance in some human tumors.[1]


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