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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Lack of clinically significant improvement of patients with tardive dyskinesia following phosphatidylcholine therapy.

A double-blind controlled study was undertaken to examine the value of phosphatidylcholine as a treatment for tardive dyskinesia (TD) in 19 psychiatric patients. All patients were maintained on their usual psychotropic medication throughout the entire study. In addition, they were given either phosphatidylcholine (30 g/day) or placebo for 6 weeks. Thirteen of the patients received the crossover treatment for 6 weeks, after which 10 of the 13 were continued on the crossover medication for an additional 6 weeks. At the end of the study, 5 patients had received phosphatidylcholine for 12 weeks and another 12 patients had received the drug for only 6 weeks. Plasma and red blood cell choline levels were monitored every 3 weeks as a measure of compliance. Although some patients showed clinical improvement of their TD, the results did not differ significantly between active drug and placebo. This was in spite of a marked elevation of plasma and red blood cell choline (up to 300% for the Lafayette Clinic patients and up to 400% for the patients from the Ypsilanti Regional Psychiatric Hospital) during treatment with phosphatidylcholine. Side effects of the drug included occasional gastrointestinal upsets and diarrhea but, in general, the medication was tolerated very well. The results indicate that large doses of phosphatidylcholine of soya origin are of no clinical value in treating symptoms of TD in spite of very large increases in blood choline.[1]


  1. Lack of clinically significant improvement of patients with tardive dyskinesia following phosphatidylcholine therapy. Domino, E.F., May, W.W., Demetriou, S., Mathews, B., Tait, S., Kovacic, B. Biol. Psychiatry (1985) [Pubmed]
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