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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A platelet alpha granule membrane protein that is associated with the plasma membrane after activation. Characterization and subcellular localization of platelet activation-dependent granule-external membrane protein.

We have identified and purified a platelet integral membrane protein (140,000 mol wt), using the KC4 monoclonal antibody specific for activated platelets, that is internal in resting platelets but exposed on activated platelets (Hsu-Lin S.-C., C.L. Berman, B.C. Furie, D. August, and B. Furie, 1984, J. Biol. Chem. 259: 9121-9126.). The expression of the protein on the platelet surface is secretion-dependent. This protein has been named platelet activation-dependent granule-external membrane (PADGEM) protein. PADGEM protein is distinct from the surface glycoproteins of resting platelets, but identical to the S12 antigen, GMP-140. Using immunofluorescent staining, resting platelets failed to stain for PADGEM protein with the KC4 antibody, but after permeabilization showed a punctate staining of the cell interior. Thrombin-stimulated intact platelets stained with a peripheral rim pattern thus demonstrating the translocation of PADGEM protein from an internal location to the cell surface. PADGEM protein expression on the platelet surface at varying thrombin concentrations correlated with alpha granule release, as measured by the secretion of platelet factor 4. Further evidence for an alpha granule localization of PADGEM protein was provided by nitrogen cavitation of resting platelets followed by metrizamide density gradient centrifugation; PADGEM protein codistributed with platelet factor 4. Using immunoelectron microscopy, the protein was localized to the alpha granule in frozen ultrathin sections of resting platelets labeled using rabbit anti-PADGEM protein antibodies, whereas in thrombin-activated platelets, the plasma membrane was labeled. These studies indicate that PADGEM protein is a component of the alpha granule membrane of resting platelets and is incorporated into the plasma membrane upon activation and secretion.[1]


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