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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Modulation of heparin cofactor II function by S protein (vitronectin) and formation of a ternary S protein-thrombin-heparin cofactor II complex.

The complement inhibitor S protein, which is identical to the adhesive protein vitronectin, functions as heparin-neutralizing factor by protecting thrombin as well as factor Xa against fast inactivation by antithrombin III. The interference of S protein with glycosaminoglycan- catalyzed inhibition of thrombin by heparin cofactor II was investigated in these studies. S protein significantly counteracted the anticoagulant activity of heparin and pentosan polysulfate but not of dermatan sulfate. In the presence of 0.3 micrograms/ml heparin, 0.5 micrograms/ml pentosan polysulfate, or 2 micrograms/ml dermatan sulfate, S protein induced a concentration-dependent reduction of the inhibition rate of thrombin by heparin cofactor II. This resulted in a decrease of the apparent pseudo first-order rate constants by about 17-fold (heparin), or about 7-fold (pentosan polysulfate), whereas no neutralization of dermatan sulfate was demonstrable at a physiological ratio of S protein to heparin cofactor II. Exposure of the glycosaminoglycan-binding region of S protein by reduction and carboxymethylation of the protein increased the neutralizing activity of S protein towards heparin and pentosan polysulfate. The results of these functional experiments correlated well with the demonstration of direct binding of S protein to both polysaccharides but not to dermatan sulfate. While reduced/carboxymethylated S protein remained also ineffective in neutralizing other dermatan sulfate compounds with varying degree of sulfation, a synthetic highly basic tridecapeptide, representing a portion of the glycosaminoglycan-binding domain of S protein, counteracted their anticoagulant activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[1]


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