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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mechanism of DNA cleavage induced by sodium chromate(VI) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide.

Reactivities of chromium compounds with DNA were investigated by the DNA sequencing technique using 32P 5'-end-labeled DNA fragments, and the reaction mechanism was investigated by ESR spectroscopy. Incubation of double-stranded DNA with sodium chromate(VI) plus hydrogen peroxide or potassium tetraperoxochromate(V) led to the cleavage at the position of every base, particularly of guanine. Even without piperidine, the formation of oligonucleotides was observed, suggesting the breakage of the deoxyribose-phosphate backbone. ESR studies using hydroxyl radical traps demonstrated that hydroxyl radical is generated both during the reaction of sodium chromate(VI) with hydrogen peroxide and the decomposition of potassium tetraperoxochromate(V), and that hydroxyl radical reacts significantly not only with mononucleotides but also with deoxyribose 5-phosphate. ESR studies using a singlet oxygen trap demonstrated that singlet oxygen is also generated both by the same reaction and decomposition, and reacts significantly with deoxyguanylate, but scarcely reacts with other mononucleotides. Furthermore, ESR studies suggested that tetraperoxochromate(V) is formed by the reaction of sodium chromate(VI) with hydrogen peroxide. These results indicate that sodium chromate(VI) reacts with hydrogen peroxide to form tetraperoxochromate(V), leading to the production of the hydroxyl radical, which causes every base alteration and deoxyribose-phosphate backbone breakage. In addition, sodium chromate(VI) plus hydrogen peroxide generates singlet oxygen, which subsequently oxidizes the guanine residue. The mechanism by which both hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen are generated during the reaction of sodium chromate(VI) with hydrogen peroxide was presented. Finally, the possibility that this reaction may be one of the primary reactions of carcinogenesis induced by chromate(VI) is discussed.[1]


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