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Chemical Compound Review

Hydroxyl     hydroxide

Synonyms: HYDROXY, oxidanide, hydroxide ion, Hydroxide(1-), hydroxyl ion, ...
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Disease relevance of Hydroxyl radical

  • M1 RNA (the catalytic subunit) alone and the RNAase P holoenzyme from E. coli cleave the tRNA-like structure of TYMV RNA in vitro at the 5' side of the quasi-helical structure to generate 5' phosphate and 3' hydroxyl groups in the cleavage products [1].
  • We show that virions and purified viral cores contain a unique endonuclease that cleaves RNAs containing a 5' methylated cap structure (m7GpppXm) preferentially at purine residues 10 to 14 nucleotides from the cap, generating fragments with 3'-terminal hydroxyl groups [2].
  • In the crystal structure of the tyrosyl tRNA synthetase (of Bacillus stearothermophilus), the side-chain hydroxyl of Thr 51 appears to make a weak hydrogen bond with the AMP moiety of the substrate intermediate, tyrosyl adenylate [3].
  • A major portion of the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide in Escherichia coli is attributed to DNA damage mediated by a Fenton reaction that generates active forms of hydroxyl radicals from hydrogen peroxide, DNA-bound iron, and a constant source of reducing equivalents [4].
  • The DNA polymerase from phage phi29 is a B family polymerase that initiates replication using a protein as a primer, attaching the first nucleotide of the phage genome to the hydroxyl of a specific serine of the priming protein [5].

Psychiatry related information on Hydroxyl radical


High impact information on Hydroxyl radical

  • This suggests a model of the RAG protein active site in which two divalent metal ions serve alternating and opposite roles as activators of attacking hydroxyl groups and stabilizers of oxyanion leaving groups [11].
  • The metal-activated hydroxide ion is a critical nucleophile in metalloenzymes that catalyze hydrolysis or hydration reactions [12].
  • Orientation of ribosome recycling factor in the ribosome from directed hydroxyl radical probing [13].
  • During TPRT, the LINE-1 endonuclease cleaves genomic DNA, freeing a 3' hydroxyl that serves as a primer for reverse transcription of LINE-1 RNA by LINE-1 reverse transcriptase [14].
  • The observed nonhomologous recombinations are entirely dependent on the 3' hydroxyl group of the 5' fragment, and are due to a splicing-like reaction in which RNA secondary structure guides the attack of this 3' hydroxyl on phosphoester bonds within the 3' fragment [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Hydroxyl radical


Biological context of Hydroxyl radical

  • TFIID binding in the minor groove of DNA at the TATA element was demonstrated by methylation interference and hydroxyl radical footprinting assays, and by binding studies with thymine analog substituted oligonucleotides [20].
  • Moreover, elimination of a single transmembrane hydroxyl group severely inhibits antigen presentation without affecting signal transduction, suggesting that these two functions are mediated by different protein interactions [21].
  • We have used oligodeoxynucleotide-directed mutagenesis to construct two point mutants at this site: one to remove the hydroxyl group (Thr 51 leads to Ala 51) and the other, in addition, to distort the local polypeptide backbone (Thr 51 leads to Pro 51) [3].
  • Current estimates of CH3Br and CH3Cl emissions from oceanic sources, terrestrial plants and fungi, biomass burning and anthropogenic inputs do not balance their losses owing to oxidation by hydroxyl radicals, oceanic degradation, and consumption in soils, suggesting that additional natural terrestrial sources may be important [22].
  • For both spliceosomal and group II introns, the first-step reaction occurs by nucleophilic attack on the 5' splice junction by the 2' hydroxyl of an internal adenosine, forming a 2'-5' phosphodiester branch in the intron [23].

Anatomical context of Hydroxyl radical


Associations of Hydroxyl radical with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Hydroxyl radical

  • The reduction of copper(II) to copper(I) by APP involves an electron-transfer reaction and could enhance the production of hydroxyl radicals, which could then attack nearby sites [35].
  • The hydroxyl radical (OH.) scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was found to dose-dependently inhibit interleukin 8 (IL-8) production in LPS-stimulated human whole blood [36].
  • C4B reacts much more effectively with hydroxyl groups than C4A and this is reversed for reaction with amino groups in spite of the very small difference in amino acid sequence between the two forms of C4 [37].
  • A quantification of the hydroxyl radical footprints allowed us to compare further the affinity of the LexA repressor for the recA operator with that of its isolated DNA binding domain [38].
  • When probed with hydroxyl radicals, ssDNA-RAD52 complexes exhibit a four-nucleotide repeat hypersensitivity pattern [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hydroxyl radical


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