The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel in relation to smoking.

The effects of tobacco and oral contraceptive (OC) use (Ovral) on the pharmacokinetics of levonorgestrel (0.25 mg) and ethinyl estradiol (50 micrograms) were examined. Young women (n = 27) were grouped as follows: I: non-OC users/nonsmokers; II: OC users/nonsmokers; III: non-OC users/smokers; and IV: OC users/smokers. The apparent clearance of levonorgestrel in group I was 80.9 +/- 15.6 ml/hr/kg and the half-life was 19.3 hours. A significant decrease in levonorgestrel clearance was seen in the chronic OC users (groups II and IV). The apparent oral clearance of ethinyl estradiol was 1002 +/- 398 ml/hr/kg in group I and the half-life averaged 7.7 hours. Groups II and III showed decreased (not significant) clearance of ethinyl estradiol. Tobacco use had no effect on steroid pharmacokinetics in the non-OC users. Although chronic OC use did not affect ethinyl estradiol clearance, a joint effect of tobacco/OC use on enhancing clearance of ethinyl estradiol appeared to occur. A linear relationship was found between 24-hour trough serum concentrations and AUC values of both steroids that may facilitate population monitoring studies of OC exposure.[1]


  1. Pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel in relation to smoking. Kanarkowski, R., Tornatore, K.M., D'Ambrosio, R., Gardner, M.J., Jusko, W.J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1988) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities