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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Pharmacology of laudanosine in dogs.

The authors determined the pharmacokinetics (including transfer into cerebrospinal fluid [CSF]) and the cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS) effects of laudanosine, a metabolite of atracurium. Eight dogs were anesthetized with halothane; blood pressure and a fronto-occipital electroencephalographic lead were monitored. Laudanosine (1 mg . kg-1 iv) was administered as a bolus, and its concentrations in plasma, CSF, urine, and bile were determined by liquid chromatography. Three-compartment modeling of plasma laudanosine concentrations yielded an elimination half-life for laudanosine of 113 +/- 24 min (mean +/- SD) and a clearance of 25 +/- 8 ml . kg-1 . min-1. CSF concentrations of laudanosine were highest 5-10 min after iv injection of laudanosine and ranged in concentration from 208 to 572 ng . ml-1 (i.e., 36-87% of the corresponding plasma concentrations). Unchanged laudanosine was found in urine (0.5-12% of injected dose) and bile (less than 0.1%); metabolites of laudanosine were found in both fluids. After a 6-h sampling period, dogs were hyperventilated with halothane (FIO2 = 0.2) to a PaCO2 of 26-28 mmHg. Laudanosine was then administered 2 mg . kg-1 iv every 5 min. With cumulative doses of 2-8 mg . kg-1, all dogs showed signs of "awakening" from anesthesia. Cumulative doses of 14-22 mg . kg-1 produced seizure activity in all animals. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly to 86% of control levels at 1 min following administration of laudanosine (1 mg . kg-1 iv) and returned to control levels 4 min later.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[1]


  1. Pharmacology of laudanosine in dogs. Hennis, P.J., Fahey, M.R., Canfell, P.C., Shi, W.Z., Miller, R.D. Anesthesiology (1986) [Pubmed]
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