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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Comparison of the acute and long-term effects of exercise on glucose control in type I diabetes.

To determine the long-term effect of exercise training on glucose control, 13 subjects with type I diabetes and 7 control subjects performed 45 min of cycle exercise three times per wk for 12 wk. The acute blood glucose response, the long-term effect on glucose control (glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose), and changes in nutrient intake were assessed. Fitness as measured by VO2 MAX increased in both control (33.8 +/- 1.7 to 43.2 +/- 3.5 ml/min/kg) and diabetic (38.7 +/- 3.3 to 46.5 +/- 3.6 ml/min/kg) (P less than 0.05) subjects although body weight remained unchanged. In the diabetic subjects, an acute glucose-lowering effect occurred with each exercise session throughout the 12-wk training period (225.8 +/- 16.1 to 148.5 +/- 16.8 mg/dl, P less than 0.001). However, fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin remained essentially unchanged (pretraining, 193.7 +/- 27.5 mg/dl and 10.7 +/- 0.3%; 6-wk training, 192.5 +/- 27.1 mg/dl and 10.7 +/- 0.03%; 12-wk training, 202 +/- 30.1 mg/dl and 10.3 +/- 0.8%). Total caloric intake as assessed by diet history increased significantly on exercising days (2569-2849 kcal, P less than 0.05). Although plasma glucose decreases acutely with exercise, increased caloric intake on exercising days obviates a long-term effect of training on glucose control. More precise guidelines and recommendations as to exercise timing and nutrient intake, likely based on self-monitoring of blood glucose, are required to achieve a beneficial effect of exercise training on metabolic control in type I diabetes.[1]


  1. Comparison of the acute and long-term effects of exercise on glucose control in type I diabetes. Zinman, B., Zuniga-Guajardo, S., Kelly, D. Diabetes Care (1984) [Pubmed]
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