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Chemical Compound Review

dextrose     6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane- 2,3,4,5-tetrol

Synonyms: glucose, Hexose, Hexopyranose, mannopyranose, D-glucose, ...
T. Sparsø, T. Jørgensen, K. Borch-Johnsen, O. Pedersen, A. Albrechtsen, S. Madsbad, T. Lauritzen, B. Glaser, G. Andersen, M.A. Permutt, A. Sandbaek, J. Wasson, T. Hansen, Juan M. Pascual, Darryl C. De Vivo, Veronica Hinton, Kristin Engelstad, Ronald L. Van Heertum, Dong Wang, Chitra M. Saxena, David A. Jacobson, Louis H. Philipson, Andrey Kuznetsov, James P. Lopez, Shera Kash, Carina E. Ammälä, Annamaria Colao, Rosario Pivonello, Luigi M. Cavallo, Ludovica F. S. Grasso, Mariano Galdiero, Felice Esposito, Paolo Cappabianca, Gaetano Lombardi, Renata S. Auriemma, S.C. Collins, C.S. Olofsson, A. Salehi, L. Eliasson, P. Rorsman, S.S. Rasmussen, C. Glümer, T. Lauritzen, K. Borch-Johnsen, A. Sandbaek,  Aitman,  Gotoda,  Rahman,  Doré,  Wallace,  Imrie,  Flint,  Scott,  Trembling,  Kurtz,  Heath,  Kren,  Zidek,  Pravenec,  Evans,  Truman,  Ohki-Hamazaki,  Yamada,  Yamano,  Wada,  Ogura,  Wada,  Imaki,  Maeno,  Yamamoto,  Watase,  Kikuyama,  Cornell,  Raguse,  Pace,  Wieczorek,  Braach-Maksvytis,  King,  Osman, A. Natali, E. Muscelli, C. Palombo, C. Morgantini, F. Vittone, A. Casolaro, S. Baldi, E. Ferrannini, George Dimitriadis, Panayota Mitrou, Sotirios A. Raptis, Vaia Lambadiari, Eleni Boutati, Demosthenes Panagiotakos, Nikos Tountas, Eftychia Koukkou, Theofanis Economopoulos, Eirini Maratou, Manuel Romero-Gómez, Santiago Durán, Conrado M. Fernández-Rodríguez, Isabel Carmona, Raúl J. Andrade, Sonia Alonso, Ricard Solá, Moisés Diago, Ramón Perez, Ramón Planas, José A. Pons, Javier Salmerón, Rafael Barcena,  
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Disease relevance of galactose


Psychiatry related information on galactose


High impact information on galactose


Chemical compound and disease context of galactose


Biological context of galactose

  • Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) affects more than 100 million people worldwide and is associated with severe metabolic defects, including peripheral insulin resistance, elevated hepatic glucose production, and inappropriate insulin secretion [31].
  • Brief report: impaired processing of prohormones associated with abnormalities of glucose homeostasis and adrenal function [32].
  • As phosphorylation by glucokinase (GLK) appears to be the rate-limiting step for glucose catabolism in beta cells, this enzyme may be the glucose sensor [33].
  • Using kinetic modeling and experimental validation, we demonstrate that these feedback interactions together are important for (i) controlling the cell-to-cell variability of GAL gene expression and (ii) ensuring that cells rapidly switch to an induced state for galactose uptake [34].
  • Facilitated glucose transport in vertebrates is catalyzed by a family of carriers consisting of at least five functional isoforms with distinct tissue distributions, subcellular localizations and transport kinetics [35].

Anatomical context of galactose


Associations of galactose with other chemical compounds

  • Studies by and now show that resveratrol promotes longevity and improves glucose homeostasis in mice by stimulating the Sirt1-mediated deacetylation of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha [39].
  • In vitro, beta-cells display loss of control of insulin gene expression by glucose and impaired GSIS with a loss of first phase but preserved second phase of secretion, while the secretory response to non-glucidic nutrients or to D-glyceraldehyde is normal [40].
  • Ectopic expression of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) receptors in liver modulates organ function to regulate blood glucose by TRH [41].
  • We have identified an enzyme in pea and Arabidopsis thaliana, L-galactose dehydrogenase, that catalyses oxidation of L-galactose to L-galactono-1,4-lactone [42].
  • Biomimetic functional models of the mononuclear copper enzyme galactose oxidase are presented that catalytically oxidize benzylic and allylic alcohols to aldehydes with O2 under mild conditions [43].
  • Glucose metabolic activity closely reflects response to gefitinib therapy [44].
  • These data indicate that glucose regulation of cis-element/trans-acting factor interaction is a key component of the mechanism by which glucose regulates insulin production [45].
  • Curtailing the liver activity of SCD1 was sufficient to lower the hepatic levels of oleyl-CoA and to recapitulate the effects of central glucose administration on VLDL secretion [46].
  • Somatostatin content was unaffected by glucose and lipids, but glucose-induced somatostatin secretion was reduced by approximately 50% following long-term exposure to either of the NEFA, regardless of whether the culture medium contained 4.5 or 15 mmol/l glucose [47].
  • This was verified by enhanced ethanol yields at 10 and 12 h (0.43 and 0.45 g ethanol/g glucose) compared to 2 h (0.32 g ethanol/g glucose) [48].
  • The response to acetylcholine was not affected by glucose ingestion in any group, while the response to SNP was attenuated, particularly in the IGT group [49].
  • Vhlh-deficient mice exhibited diminished glucose-stimulated changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration, electrical activity, and insulin secretion, which culminate in impaired systemic glucose tolerance [50].
  • In cells dependent on glucose for survival, glucose withdrawal-induced ROS generation and tyrosine kinase signaling synergize to amplify ROS levels, ultimately resulting in ROS-mediated cell death [51].
  • Further, forcing drug-sensitive cells into glucose deprivation rendered them more resistant to lapatinib [52].

Gene context of galactose


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of galactose

  • We found no significant evidence for linkage when the families were analysed together, but strong evidence for linkage when families were classified according to mean insulin levels in affecteds (in oral glucose tolerance tests) [31].
  • Positron-emission tomography (PET) has identified specific regions of the brain in which the rate of glucose metabolism declines progressively in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease [66].
  • The genetic dissection of NIDDM allowed us to map up to six independently segregating loci predisposing to hyperglycaemia, glucose intolerance or altered insulin secretion, and a seventh locus implicated in body weight [67].
  • However, the adoption of biosensors for practical applications other than the measurement of blood glucose is currently limited by the expense, insensitivity and inflexibility of the available transduction methods [68].
  • A five-hour intravenous infusion of leptin into wild-type mice increased glucose turnover and glucose uptake, but decreased hepatic glycogen content [69].


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