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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Maximum shortening velocity of smooth muscle: zero load-clamp vs. afterloaded method.

Previous reports from this laboratory of force-velocity relationships of canine tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) have presented maximum shortening velocities (Vmax) mathematically derived from the linearized transformation of the Hill equation (A. V. Hill, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B., 126:136-195, 1938). Recent technical advances enable us to measure Vmax directly using an electromagnetic lever system that can instantaneously clamp to a zero load, thus we compared values of Vmax derived mathematically and those directly measured on the same TSM strips. Derived Vmax values from afterloaded isotonic shortening curves for loads greater than preload were 0.328 +/- 0.021 optimal length (lO)/s and were not significantly different from zero load-clamp measurements of 0.301 +/- 0.022 lO/s from the same (n = 15) muscles. These data indicate that Vmax values mathematically derived for TSM from conventional isotonic afterloaded force-velocity curves are valid estimates of zero load velocity, because they were not significantly different from values obtained by direct measurement using the zero load-clamp technique.[1]


  1. Maximum shortening velocity of smooth muscle: zero load-clamp vs. afterloaded method. Mitchell, R.W., Stephens, N.L. Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology. (1983) [Pubmed]
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