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Gene Review

LOC476104  -  vitamin K-dependent protein C-like

Canis lupus familiaris

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Disease relevance of PROC

  • Thus, influenza, Sendai, and Simian virus 5 bud from the apical (free) surface, while vesicular stomatitis virions (VSV) are assembled at basolateral plasma membrane domains (Rodriguez-Boulan, E., and D.D. Sabatini, 1978, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 75:5071-5075) [1].
  • An enzyme from Escherichia coli that reduces methionine sulfoxide residues in protein [Brot, N., Weissbach, L., Werth, J. & Weissbach, H. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 2155-2158] can restore the biological inhibitory activity of canine oxidized alpha-1-PI [2].

High impact information on PROC

  • To study the intracellular transport of newly synthesized sphingolipids in epithelial cells we have used a fluorescent ceramide analog, N-6[7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl] aminocaproyl sphingosine (C6-NBD-ceramide; Lipsky, N. G., and R. E. Pagano, 1983, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 80:2608-2612) as a probe [3].
  • This selective polysome binding capacity was abolished when the microsomal vesicles were salt-extracted but was restored by an 11S protein (SRP, Signal Recognition Protein) previously purified from the salt-extract of microsomal vesicles (Walter and Blobel, 1980. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 77:7112-7116) [4].
  • Previous reports have shown that rough microsomes treated with high salt (Warren and Dobberstein, 1978, Nature, 273:569-571) or proteases (Walter et al., 1979, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, U. S. A., 76:1,795) are unable to vectorially translocate nascent proteins [5].
  • The putative role of tissue factor (TF) as a receptor involved in signal transduction is indicated by its sequence homology to cytokine receptors (Bazan, J. F. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 87, 6934-6938) [6].
  • The cardiac and skeletal muscle isoforms of calsequestrin (Fliegel, L., Ohnishi, M., Carpenter, M. R., Khanna, V. K., Reithmeier, R. A. F., and MacLennan, D. H. (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 84, 1167-1171), although the products of different genes, are 65% identical, are acidic, and share one glycosylation site [7].

Biological context of PROC

  • By using a pair of primers based on the nucleotide sequences from human and bovine PROC cDNA, the PROC gene fragments were enzymatically amplified from their genomic DNAs and were sequenced by the dideoxy-termination method [8].
  • We show that maize storage protein translocation across microsomal membranes is mediated by signal recognition particles (SRPs) similar to those described in animal systems (Dobberstein, B. (1978) Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 252, 955-962; Walter, P., and Blobel, G. (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 77, 7112-7116) [9].
  • NANDP was trapped in nearly stoichiometric amounts at the active site by cross-linking SH1 and SH2 with N,N'-p-phenylenedimaleimide (pPDM) or by chelation with cobalt (III) phenanthroline [Wells, J., & Yount, R. (1979) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76, 4966] [10].
  • Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of the noncoding pseudogene region (Tordo et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83, 3914-3918, 1986) revealed different relationships [11].
  • Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transfected with the multidrug resistance mdr1 gene, MDR1-MDCK (Pastan et al., 1988, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85 4486-4470), were used in a combined approach to study expression, localisation and functionality of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) membrane transporter in the same cell culture preparations [12].

Anatomical context of PROC

  • Using the Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell "calcium switch," we have previously demonstrated that, as MDCK cells establish contact and ultimately form tight junctions, there are marked global and localized changes in intracellular calcium at the sites of cell-cell contact (Nigam et al., 1992, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 89:6162-6166) [13].
  • Three totally pancreatectomized dogs had the proc. lienalis of the pancreases (35% of the total pancreas weight) transplanted autologously into the abdominal cavity [14].
  • Previous reports from this laboratory of force-velocity relationships of canine tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) have presented maximum shortening velocities (Vmax) mathematically derived from the linearized transformation of the Hill equation (A. V. Hill, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B., 126:136-195, 1938) [15].

Associations of PROC with chemical compounds

  • We previously reported a rapid, nongenomic, and Zn(2+)-sensitive action of aldosterone on Na+/H+ exchange in renal epithelial [Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)] cells (M. Gekle, N. Golenhofen, H. Oberleithner, and S. Silbernagl. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 93: 10500-10504, 1996) [16].


  1. Assembly of enveloped viruses in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells: polarized budding from single attached cells and from clusters of cells in suspension. Rodriguez-Boulan, E., Paskiet, K.T., Sabatini, D.D. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Enzymatic reduction of oxidized alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor restores biological activity. Abrams, W.R., Weinbaum, G., Weissbach, L., Weissbach, H., Brot, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Sorting of sphingolipids in epithelial (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells. van Meer, G., Stelzer, E.H., Wijnaendts-van-Resandt, R.W., Simons, K. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Translocation of proteins across the endoplasmic reticulum. II. Signal recognition protein (SRP) mediates the selective binding to microsomal membranes of in-vitro-assembled polysomes synthesizing secretory protein. Walter, P., Blobel, G. J. Cell Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. A membrane component essential for vectorial translocation of nascent proteins across the endoplasmic reticulum: requirements for its extraction and reassociation with the membrane. Meyer, D.I., Dobberstein, B. J. Cell Biol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Signal transduction via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway induced by binding of coagulation factor VIIa to tissue factor. Poulsen, L.K., Jacobsen, N., Sørensen, B.B., Bergenhem, N.C., Kelly, J.D., Foster, D.C., Thastrup, O., Ezban, M., Petersen, L.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Complete amino acid sequence of canine cardiac calsequestrin deduced by cDNA cloning. Scott, B.T., Simmerman, H.K., Collins, J.H., Nadal-Ginard, B., Jones, L.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. A comparative study of partial primary structures of the catalytic region of mammalian protein C. Murakawa, M., Okamura, T., Kamura, T., Kuroiwa, M., Harada, M., Niho, Y. Br. J. Haematol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Signal recognition-like particles are present in maize. Campos, N., Palau, J., Torrent, M., Ludevid, D. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. 2-[(4-Azido-2-nitrophenyl)amino]ethyl triphosphate, a novel chromophoric and photoaffinity analogue of ATP. Synthesis, characterization, and interaction with myosin subfragment 1. Nakamaye, K.L., Wells, J.A., Bridenbaugh, R.L., Okamoto, Y., Yount, R.G. Biochemistry (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Studies on the antigenicity and nucleotide sequence of the rabies virus Nishigahara strain, a current seed strain used for dog vaccine production in Japan. Sakamoto, S., Ide, T., Nakatake, H., Tokiyoshi, S., Yamamoto, M., Kawai, A., Smith, J.S. Virus Genes (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. P-Glycoprotein in cell cultures: a combined approach to study expression, localisation, and functionality in the confocal microscope. Hämmerle, S.P., Rothen-Rutishauser, B., Krämer, S.D., Günthert, M., Wunderli-Allenspach, H. European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Critical role for intracellular calcium in tight junction biogenesis. Stuart, R.O., Sun, A., Panichas, M., Hebert, S.C., Brenner, B.M., Nigam, S.K. J. Cell. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Plasma insulin and glucose tolerance in pancreatectomized dogs after autologous partial pancreas transplantation. Loss of the insulinogenic reflex after oGTT and meal feeding. Freyse, E.J., Kiene, S., Brinckmann, W., Fischer, U. Horm. Metab. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Maximum shortening velocity of smooth muscle: zero load-clamp vs. afterloaded method. Mitchell, R.W., Stephens, N.L. Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. The mineralocorticoid aldosterone activates a proton conductance in cultured kidney cells. Gekle, M., Silbernagl, S., Oberleithner, H. Am. J. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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