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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Covalent binding of 2-acetylaminofluorene, 2-aminofluorene, and N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene to rat liver nuclear DNA and protein in vivo and in vitro.

Binding of the hepatocarcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) and two metabolites, 2-aminofluorene (AF) and N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-OH-AAF), to the DNA and protein of rat hepatic nuclei was examined in vitro and in a cell-free system. Three and one-half hr following a single injection of each compound in equimolar amounts. DNA contained approximately 50% more of the compounds per mg than did protein. The amount of N-OH-AAF bound to DNA was 4 times greater than that of AAF, while AF bound in intermediate amounts. When incubated with nuclei in a cell-free system, AAF seldom bound in measurable amounts, while significant amounts of N-OH-AAF and AF bound to both DNA and protein. As occurred in vivo, DNA bound more of each per mg than did protein. The amount of N-OH-AFF bound to intranuclear DNA increased 54% when an aliquot of the postmicrosomal liver fraction was added to the incubation mixture, but maximum binding of AF occurred in the absence of any other liver fraction. Thus, it was shown that two AAF metabolites, AF and N-OH-AAF, bind covalently to the DNA and protein of hepatic nuclei more readily than does AAF itself and that binding in a cell-free system parallels binding in vivo. Additional evidence suggests that rat hepatic nuclei are capable of mediating the binding of AF and N-OH-AAF to macromolecules through distinct enzyme systems. This is the first demonstration that the nucleus is capable of metabolizing AF to an electrophile that can bind covalently to DNA.[1]


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