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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Different ARF domains are required for the activation of cholera toxin and phospholipase D.

ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), initially described as activators of cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, regulate intracellular vesicular membrane trafficking and stimulate a phospholipase D (PLD) isoform. ARF-like (ARL) proteins are structurally related to ARFs but do not activate cholera toxin and have relatively little effect on PLD. A new human ARL gene termed hARL1, which shares 57% amino acid identity with hARF1, was identified using a polymerase chain reaction-based cloning method. To determine whether different structural elements are responsible for the activation structural elements are responsible for the activation of the A subunit of cholera toxin and PLD, chimeric proteins were constructed by switching the amino-terminal 73 amino acids of ARF1 and ARL1. The recombinant rL73/F protein, in which the amino-terminal 73 amino acids of ARL1 replaced those of ARF1, activated the A subunit of cholera toxin, whereas the rF73/L protein, in which the NH2-terminal 73 amino acids of ARF1 replaced those of ARL1, was inactive. The two chimeric proteins had quite opposite effects on PLD activity. rF73/L activated PLD as effectively as rARF1, whereas rL73/F protein activated PLD only slightly. It appears that the amino-terminal region of ARF1 is not critical for its action as a GTP-dependent activator of cholera toxin, whereas it is necessary for activation of the putative effector enzyme, PLD.[1]

References

  1. Different ARF domains are required for the activation of cholera toxin and phospholipase D. Zhang, G.F., Patton, W.A., Lee, F.J., Liyanage, M., Han, J.S., Rhee, S.G., Moss, J., Vaughan, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
 
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