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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Vma21p is a yeast membrane protein retained in the endoplasmic reticulum by a di-lysine motif and is required for the assembly of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase complex.

The yeast vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) is a multisubunit complex comprised of peripheral membrane subunits involved in ATP hydrolysis and integral membrane subunits involved in proton pumping. The yeast vma21 mutant was isolated from a screen to identify mutants defective in V-ATPase function. vma21 mutants fail to assemble the V-ATPase complex onto the vacuolar membrane: peripheral subunits accumulate in the cytosol and the 100-kDa integral membrane subunit is rapidly degraded. The product of the VMA21 gene (Vma21p) is an 8.5-kDa integral membrane protein that is not a subunit of the purified V-ATPase complex but instead resides in the endoplasmic reticulum. Vma21p contains a dilysine motif at the carboxy terminus, and mutation of these lysine residues abolishes retention in the endoplasmic reticulum and results in delivery of Vma21p to the vacuole, the default compartment for yeast membrane proteins. Our findings suggest that Vma21p is required for assembly of the integral membrane sector of the V-ATPase in the endoplasmic reticulum and that the unassembled 100-kDa integral membrane subunit present in delta vma21 cells is rapidly degraded by nonvacuolar proteases.[1]


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