The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Cytosol


Psychiatry related information on Cytosol


High impact information on Cytosol

  • For example, TRX/ADF translocates from the cytosol into the nucleus by a variety of cellular stresses, to regulate the expression of various genes through the redox factor-1 (Ref-1)/APEX [10].
  • Addition of an antibody to the Golgi-associated protein GRASP65 inhibited Golgi fragmentation by mitotic cytosol in permeabilized cells [11].
  • Upon cell binding and introduction into the cytosol, CNF1 deamidates glutamine 63 of RhoA (or 61 of Rac and Cdc42), rendering constitutively active these GTPases [12].
  • We have purified a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-sensitive activator of Rac from neutrophil cytosol [13].
  • The human peroxisomal targeting signal receptor, Pex5p, is translocated into the peroxisomal matrix and recycled to the cytosol [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cytosol


Biological context of Cytosol

  • In T lymphocytes, NF-kappa B is sequestered in the cytosol by the inhibitor I kappa B-alpha and released after serine phosphorylation of I kappa B-alpha that regulates its ubiquitin-dependent degradation [20].
  • Our results explain the pathway of cholera toxin, suggest a role for PDI in retrograde protein transport into the cytosol, and indicate that PDI can act as a novel type of chaperone, whose binding and release of substrates is regulated by a redox, rather than an ATPase, cycle [21].
  • We reconstituted this inhibition in interphase cytosol by adding a preparation enriched in the starfish homologue of the cdc2 protein kinase [22].
  • We suggest that TCP1 may represent one of a family of molecules in the eukaryotic cytosol involved in protein folding and regulated in part by their heteromeric associations [23].
  • It is proposed that NCF-1, NCF-2, and NCF-3 are essential for generation of O2.- by phagocytic cells and that genetic abnormalities of these cytosol components can result in the CGD phenotype [24].

Anatomical context of Cytosol

  • The absorption spectrum and protein sequence revealed that this protein is cytochrome c. Elimination of cytochrome c from cytosol by immunodepletion, or inclusion of sucrose to stabilize mitochondria during cytosol preparation, diminished the apoptotic activity [25].
  • When membranes were isolated from sterol-depleted cells, SCAP entered vesicles in a reaction requiring nucleoside triphosphates and cytosol [26].
  • TRAM regulates the exposure of nascent secretory proteins to the cytosol during translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum [27].
  • Based on the observation that PXR1 exists both in the cytosol and in association with peroxisomes, we propose that PXR1 protein recognizes PTS1-containing proteins in the cytosol and directs them to the peroxisome [28].
  • These include the redistribution of the Golgi coat protein, beta-COP, to the cytosol, the loss of the Golgi apparatus as a distinct organelle, the mixing of this organelle with the ER, the addition of complex oligosaccharides to resident ER glycoproteins, and the block of anterograde traffic [29].

Associations of Cytosol with chemical compounds

  • Dependent cells form tumors preferentially in male animals and dependent cell cytosols contain significant amounts (approximately 300 femtomoles per mg protein) of a specific androgen-binding macromolecule [30].
  • The Man6P-ricin hybrid appears to require the ricin B chain galactose-binding site to enter the cytosol after initially binding to the Man6P receptor [31].
  • Cytosol extracts of these clones possessed virus-specified TK activity identical to that present in cells lytically infected with HSV2, as indicated by thermolability and mobility on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [32].
  • Redistribution of both proteins can be prevented by pretreating cells with AlF4-. Recruitment of adaptors from the cytosol onto the TGN membrane has been reconstituted in a permeabilized cell system and is increased by addition of GTP gamma S and blocked by addition of BFA [33].
  • Thus, activation-induced removal of palmitate provides an explanation for activation-induced shifts of alpha s to the cytosol [34].

Gene context of Cytosol

  • We report here the purification and cDNA cloning of Apaf-1, a novel 130 kd protein from HeLa cell cytosol that participates in the cytochrome c-dependent activation of caspase-3 [35].
  • The factor was purified to homogeneity from bovine brain cytosol and identified as a member of the ADP-Ribosylation Factor (ARF) subfamily of small G proteins [36].
  • In S phase cytosol, cyclins A/Cdk2 and E/Cdk2 triggered initiation synergistically [37].
  • We report here that, in the native state, murine and human TCP1 is distributed throughout the cytosol as an 800K-950K hetero-oligomeric particle in association with four to six unidentified proteins and two Hsp70 heat-shock proteins [23].
  • The AAA ATPase Cdc48/p97 and its partners transport proteins from the ER into the cytosol [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cytosol


  1. Identification of nucleotide-binding regions in the chaperonin proteins GroEL and GroES. Martin, J., Geromanos, S., Tempst, P., Hartl, F.U. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Polymerase gene products of hepatitis B viruses are required for genomic RNA packaging as wel as for reverse transcription. Hirsch, R.C., Lavine, J.E., Chang, L.J., Varmus, H.E., Ganem, D. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Palatal cytosol cortisol-binding protein associated with cleft palate susceptibility and H-2 genotype. Goldman, A.S., Katsumata, M., Yaffe, S.J., Gassner, D.L. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Miller-Dieker lissencephaly gene encodes a subunit of brain platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase [corrected]. Hattori, M., Adachi, H., Tsujimoto, M., Arai, H., Inoue, K. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Recombinant 47-kilodalton cytosol factor restores NADPH oxidase in chronic granulomatous disease. Lomax, K.J., Leto, T.L., Nunoi, H., Gallin, J.I., Malech, H.L. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Mitochondrial and herpesvirus-specific deoxypyrimidine kinases. Leung, W.C., Dubbs, D.R., Trkula, D., Kit, S. J. Virol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of crocetin on the hepatotoxicity and hepatic DNA binding of aflatoxin B1 in rats. Wang, C.J., Shiow, S.J., Lin, J.K. Carcinogenesis (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Mechanisms of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects of acetazolamide in mice: relation to the activity and amount of carbonic anhydrase in brain. Anderson, R.E., Chiu, P., Woodbury, D.M. Epilepsia (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Nuclear estrogen receptor binding in the preoptic area and hypothalamus of pregnancy-terminated rats: correlation with the onset of maternal behavior. Giordano, A.L., Siegel, H.I., Rosenblatt, J.S. Neuroendocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Redox regulation of cellular activation. Nakamura, H., Nakamura, K., Yodoi, J. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Fragmentation and dispersal of the pericentriolar Golgi complex is required for entry into mitosis in mammalian cells. Sütterlin, C., Hsu, P., Mallabiabarrena, A., Malhotra, V. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. CNF1 exploits the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery to restrict Rho GTPase activation for bacterial host cell invasion. Doye, A., Mettouchi, A., Bossis, G., Clément, R., Buisson-Touati, C., Flatau, G., Gagnoux, L., Piechaczyk, M., Boquet, P., Lemichez, E. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. P-Rex1, a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3- and Gbetagamma-regulated guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for Rac. Welch, H.C., Coadwell, W.J., Ellson, C.D., Ferguson, G.J., Andrews, S.R., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Tempst, P., Hawkins, P.T., Stephens, L.R. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. The human peroxisomal targeting signal receptor, Pex5p, is translocated into the peroxisomal matrix and recycled to the cytosol. Dammai, V., Subramani, S. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Antiestrogenic action of 3-hydroxytamoxifen in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Roos, W., Oeze, L., Löser, R., Eppenberger, U. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors in breast cancer in the Japanese: brief communication. Ochi, H., Hayashi, T., Nakao, K., Yayoi, E., Kawahara, T., Matsumoto, K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. The p67-phox cytosolic peptide of the respiratory burst oxidase from human neutrophils. Functional aspects. Okamura, N., Babior, B.M., Mayo, L.A., Peveri, P., Smith, R.M., Curnutte, J.T. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Membrane lipids of hepatic tissue. II. Phospholipids from subcellular fractions of liver and hepatoma 7288CTC. Upreti, G.C., deAntueno, R.J., Wood, R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Comparison of tritiated estradiol and tamoxifen aziridine for measurement of estrogen receptors in human breast cancer cytosols. Piccart, M.J., Muquardt, C., Bosman, C., Pirotte, P., Veenstra, S., Grillo, F., Leclercq, G. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Tyrosine phosphorylation of I kappa B-alpha activates NF-kappa B without proteolytic degradation of I kappa B-alpha. Imbert, V., Rupec, R.A., Livolsi, A., Pahl, H.L., Traenckner, E.B., Mueller-Dieckmann, C., Farahifar, D., Rossi, B., Auberger, P., Baeuerle, P.A., Peyron, J.F. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Protein disulfide isomerase acts as a redox-dependent chaperone to unfold cholera toxin. Tsai, B., Rodighiero, C., Lencer, W.I., Rapoport, T.A. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Inhibition of endocytic vesicle fusion in vitro by the cell-cycle control protein kinase cdc2. Tuomikoski, T., Felix, M.A., Dorée, M., Gruenberg, J. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. T-complex polypeptide-1 is a subunit of a heteromeric particle in the eukaryotic cytosol. Lewis, V.A., Hynes, G.M., Zheng, D., Saibil, H., Willison, K. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Two forms of autosomal chronic granulomatous disease lack distinct neutrophil cytosol factors. Nunoi, H., Rotrosen, D., Gallin, J.I., Malech, H.L. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Induction of apoptotic program in cell-free extracts: requirement for dATP and cytochrome c. Liu, X., Kim, C.N., Yang, J., Jemmerson, R., Wang, X. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Regulated step in cholesterol feedback localized to budding of SCAP from ER membranes. Nohturfft, A., Yabe, D., Goldstein, J.L., Brown, M.S., Espenshade, P.J. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. TRAM regulates the exposure of nascent secretory proteins to the cytosol during translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum. Hegde, R.S., Voigt, S., Rapoport, T.A., Lingappa, V.R. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Mutations in the PTS1 receptor gene, PXR1, define complementation group 2 of the peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Dodt, G., Braverman, N., Wong, C., Moser, A., Moser, H.W., Watkins, P., Valle, D., Gould, S.J. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. A brefeldin A-like phenotype is induced by the overexpression of a human ERD-2-like protein, ELP-1. Hsu, V.W., Shah, N., Klausner, R.D. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Development of methods for the quantitative in vitro analysis of androgen-dependent and autonomous Shionogi carcinoma 115 cells. Stanley, E.R., Palmer, R.E., Sohn, U. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  31. Studies on the galactose-binding site of ricin and the hybrid toxin Man6P-ricin. Youle, R.J., Murray, G.J., Neville, D.M. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  32. Biochemical transformation of mouse cells by fragments of herpes simplex virus DNA. Maitland, N.J., McDougall, J.K. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  33. Recruitment of coat proteins onto Golgi membranes in intact and permeabilized cells: effects of brefeldin A and G protein activators. Robinson, M.S., Kreis, T.E. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Activation and depalmitoylation of Gs alpha. Wedegaertner, P.B., Bourne, H.R. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Apaf-1, a human protein homologous to C. elegans CED-4, participates in cytochrome c-dependent activation of caspase-3. Zou, H., Henzel, W.J., Liu, X., Lutschg, A., Wang, X. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. ADP-ribosylation factor, a small GTP-dependent regulatory protein, stimulates phospholipase D activity. Brown, H.A., Gutowski, S., Moomaw, C.R., Slaughter, C., Sternweis, P.C. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Cyclin/Cdk-dependent initiation of DNA replication in a human cell-free system. Krude, T., Jackman, M., Pines, J., Laskey, R.A. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. The AAA ATPase Cdc48/p97 and its partners transport proteins from the ER into the cytosol. Ye, Y., Meyer, H.H., Rapoport, T.A. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Intracellular location and cell context-dependent function of protein kinase D. Marklund, U., Lightfoot, K., Cantrell, D. Immunity (2003) [Pubmed]
  40. 12(S)-HETE enhancement of prostate tumor cell invasion: selective role of PKC alpha. Liu, B., Maher, R.J., Hannun, Y.A., Porter, A.T., Honn, K.V. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  41. Protein kinase C is increased in the liver of humans and rats with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: an alteration not due to hyperglycemia. Considine, R.V., Nyce, M.R., Allen, L.E., Morales, L.M., Triester, S., Serrano, J., Colberg, J., Lanza-Jacoby, S., Caro, J.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  42. Malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts in plasma and liver of rats with iron overload. Houglum, K., Filip, M., Witztum, J.L., Chojkier, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  43. Heat shock factor-1 protein in heat shock factor-1 gene-transfected human epidermoid A431 cells requires phosphorylation before inducing heat shock protein-70 production. Ding, X.Z., Tsokos, G.C., Kiang, J.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities