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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of ifosfamide administered as a continuous infusion in children.

The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of ifosfamide was investigated in a group of 16 pediatric patients (5 girls) aged 1-17 years. Each received a dose of 3 g/m2/day for up to 3 days by continuous infusion. Plasma and urine were collected, and concentrations of ifosfamide and its principal metabolites were determined by a quantitative high-performance thin layer chromatography method. During 3 days of continuous infusion, the plasma concentrations of parent drug decreased. This was accompanied by a continuous increase in dechloroethylated products in plasma but not in urine. Estimated pharmacokinetic parameters (clearance, volume of distribution, and half-life) were dependent on body size and age but not any other patient variable. Renal clearance was a relatively minor route of elimination for parent drug and corresponded to < 25% of glomerular filtration rate. Metabolite data from plasma and urine indicated a high degree of interindividual variation in metabolism. Comparison of metabolite recoveries in urine indicated a positive correlation between activation and inactivation routes of metabolism. Prior exposure to ifosfamide was associated with a higher recovery in urine of dechloroethylated metabolites. The severity of hematological toxicity was inversely correlated with glomerular filtration rate but not to parameters of ifosfamide metabolism. There was marked variation in levels of the carboxy metabolite, which could not be detected in the plasma of 5 subjects. However, evidence for a polymorphism in metabolism to this metabolite was weaker than that seen with the isomeric oxazaphosphorine cyclophosphamide. There appeared to be a higher clearance of ifosfamide in pediatric patients compared to adults. The significance of this, and of the variation in metabolism of ifosfamide, for clinical outcome remains to be established, but the increase in the dechloroethylation route of metabolism may be associated with an increased risk of toxicity.[1]


  1. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of ifosfamide administered as a continuous infusion in children. Boddy, A.V., Yule, S.M., Wyllie, R., Price, L., Pearson, A.D., Idle, J.R. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
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