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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A panning DLT procedure for three-dimensional videography.

The direct linear transformation (DLT) method [Abdel-Aziz and Karara, APS Symposium on Photogrammetry. American Society of Photogrammetry, Falls Church, VA (1971)] is widely used in biomechanics to obtain three-dimensional space coordinates from film and video records. This method has some major shortcomings when used to analyze events which take place over large areas. To overcome these shortcomings, a three-dimensional data collection method based on the DLT method, and making use of panning cameras, was developed. Several small single control volumes were combined to construct a large total control volume. For each single control volume, a regression equation (calibration equation) is developed to express each of the 11 DLT parameters as a function of camera orientation, so that the DLT parameters can then be estimated from arbitrary camera orientations. Once the DLT parameters are known for at least two cameras, and the associated two-dimensional film or video coordinates of the event are obtained, the desired three-dimensional space coordinates can be computed. In a laboratory test, five single control volumes (in a total control volume of 24.40 x 2.44 x 2.44 m3) were used to test the effect of the position of the single control volume on the accuracy of the computed three dimensional space coordinates. Linear and quadratic calibration equations were used to test the effect of the order of the equation on the accuracy of the computed three dimensional space coordinates. For four of the five single control volumes tested, the mean resultant errors associated with the use of the linear calibration equation were significantly larger than those associated with the use of the quadratic calibration equation. The position of the single control volume had no significant effect on the mean resultant errors in computed three dimensional coordinates when the quadratic calibration equation was used. Under the same data collection conditions, the mean resultant errors in the computed three dimensional coordinates associated with the panning and stationary DLT methods were 17 and 22 mm, respectively. The major advantages of the panning DLT method lie in the large image sizes obtained and in the ease with which the data can be collected. The method also has potential for use in a wide variety of contexts. The major shortcoming of the method is the large amount of digitizing necessary to calibrate the total control volume. Adaptations of the method to reduce the amount of digitizing required are being explored.[1]


  1. A panning DLT procedure for three-dimensional videography. Yu, B., Koh, T.J., Hay, J.G. Journal of biomechanics. (1993) [Pubmed]
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