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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Comparison of activated protein C/protein S-mediated inactivation of human factor VIII and factor V.

The proteolytic cleavage and subsequent inactivation of recombinant human factor VIII (rhFVIII) and human factor VIIIa (rhFVIIIa) by recombinant human activated protein C (rAPC) was analyzed in the presence and absence of human protein S and human factor V (FV). Membrane-bound rhFVIIIa spontaneously looses most of its initial cofactor activity after 15 minutes of incubation at pH 7. 4. The remaining activity can be eliminated after incubation with rAPC. Complete inactivation of the membrane-bound rhFVIII and rhFVIIIa by APC correlates with cleavage at Arg336. The inactivation of rhFVIII and human plasma FV by rAPC were also compared. Under similar experimental conditions, complete inactivation of membrane-bound FVIII (60 nmol/L) by rAPC (10 nmol/L) requires 4 hours of incubation, in contrast to 5 minutes for FV (60 nmol/L). The presence of protein S (100 nmol/L) enhances rhFVIII inactivation by rAPC by 6.4-fold and FVa inactivation by twofold, whereas membrane-bound FV showed no protein S dependence during inactivation. The addition of human FV to the APC/protein S inactivation mixture increases by approximately twofold the rate of inactivation of rhFVIII. The effect of FV on the rhFVIII inactivation by APC is protein S-dependent, because FV alone has no effect on the inactivation rate of rhFVIII by APC. Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes an epitope between amino acid residues 307 and 506 of human FV showed that FV was completely cleaved by APC at the beginning of the rhFVIII inactivation process. These data suggest that FV fragments derived from the B region of the procofactor after incubation of the membrane- bound procofactor with APC, but not intact single-chain FV, stimulate APC activity in the presence of protein S. rhFVIII, FV, and rhFVIIIa were not inactivated by Glu20-->Ala-substituted rAPC (rAPCgamma20A), and membrane-bound factor Va was only partially inactivated. Our data suggest that (1) FV and FVa are the physiologically significant substrates for APC inactivation and (2) membranes- bound APC-treated FV is a cofactor for the APC inactivation of rhFVIII only in the presence of the intact form of protein S.[1]


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