The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Development of parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the chick Edinger Westphal nucleus.

To determine when the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin appears during development, neurons in the chick Edinger Westphal nucleus were examined for parvalbumin immunoreactivity at a variety of embryonic stages. Parvalbumin immunoreactivity appeared on embryonic day 14 (E14, Hamburger and Hamilton stage 40) in predominantly lateral Edinger Westphal neurons. Cytochrome oxidase activity within the nucleus was examined throughout development, as an indicator of physiological activity, and expression of cytochrome oxidase was compared with that of parvalbumin. Cytochrome oxidase activity was found to be uniformly high in all parts of the Edinger Westphal nucleus throughout development. Either the Edinger Westphal nucleus in physiologically active quite early in its development or other energy demands mask the correlation of cytochrome oxidase with electrical activity. Cytochrome oxidase was expressed well before parvalbumin immunoreactivity appeared. Voltage-activated calcium currents were characterized in E12 Edinger Westphal neurons. In both amplitude and composition, E12 calcium currents resemble those of E16 neurons, excluding the possibility that calcium currents appear de novo during or just prior to the appearance of parvalbumin. Both cytochrome oxidase activity and calcium currents are observed in Edinger Westphal neurons well before the appearance of parvalbumin during development. These findings do not exclude the possibility that physiological activity affects the expression of parvalbumin since other factors such as changing patterns of synaptic activity or the appearance of calcium conducting NMDA receptors have yet to be examined. However, they raise the possibility that additional factors such as an intrinsic developmental program or a change in the neuron's basal intracellular calcium requirements may also be involved.[1]


  1. Development of parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the chick Edinger Westphal nucleus. Fujii, J.T., Lucaj, Z., Peduzzi, J.D., Crossland, W.J. J. Comp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities