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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

2-phenylethylamine catabolism by Escherichia coli K-12: gene organization and expression.

A gene encoding phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (PAD), the enzyme involved together with a copper-topaquinone-containing amine oxidase in the initial steps of 2-phenylethylamine catabolism, was located at 31.1 min on the Escherichia coli K-12 genetic map. It was immediately adjacent to the gene encoding the amine oxidase but transcribed in the opposite direction. The purified PAD acted almost equally well on phenylacetaldehyde, 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. It had a subunit size of 54 kDa and its deduced amino acid sequence was approximately 40% identical to various eukaryotic and prokaryotic aldehyde dehydrogenases. A third gene encoding a positive regulatory protein required for expression of the amine oxidase and PAD genes was located next to the PAD gene. A gene previously located in this position was reported to encode a second amine oxidase but this was not confirmed. The nucleotide sequence from 1447 to 1450 kb on the E. coli K-12 physical map has been determined.[1]


  1. 2-phenylethylamine catabolism by Escherichia coli K-12: gene organization and expression. Hanlon, S.P., Hill, T.K., Flavell, M.A., Stringfellow, J.M., Cooper, R.A. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1997) [Pubmed]
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