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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Identification of amino acid residues responsible for differences in substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity between two human liver dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isoenzymes by site-directed mutagenesis.

Human liver dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isoenzymes (DD1 and DD2), in which only seven amino acid residues are substituted, differ remarkably in specificity for steroidal substrates and inhibitor sensitivity: DD1 shows 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity and sensitivity to 1,10-phenanthroline, whereas DD2 oxidizes 3alpha-hydroxysteroids and is highly inhibited by bile acids. In the present study we performed site-directed mutagenesis of the seven residues (Thr-38, Arg-47, Leu-54, Cys-87, Val-151, Arg-170 and Gln-172) of DD1 to the corresponding residues (Val, His, Val, Ser, Met, His and Leu respectively) of DD2. Of the seven mutations, only the replacement of Leu-54 with Val produced an enzyme that had almost the same properties as DD2. No significant changes were observed in the other mutant enzymes. An additional site-directed mutagenesis of Tyr-55 of DD1 to Phe yielded an inactive protein, suggesting the catalytically important role of this residue. Thus a residue at a position before the catalytic Tyr residue might play a key role in determining the orientation of the substrates and inhibitors.[1]


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