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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Phosphorylation of activation functions AF-1 and AF-2 of RAR alpha and RAR gamma is indispensable for differentiation of F9 cells upon retinoic acid and cAMP treatment.

The role of RAR alpha 1 and RAR gamma 2 AF-1 and AF-2 activation functions and of their phosphorylation was investigated during RA-induced primitive and parietal differentiation of F9 cells. We found that: (i) primitive endodermal differentiation requires RAR gamma 2, whereas parietal endodermal differentiation requires both RAR gamma 2 and RAR alpha 1, and in all cases AF-1 and AF-2 must synergize; (ii) primitive endodermal differentiation requires the proline-directed kinase site of RAR gamma 2-AF-1, whereas parietal endodermal differentiation additionally requires that of RAR alpha 1-AF-1; (iii) the cAMP-induced parietal endodermal differentiation also requires the protein kinase A site of RAR alpha-AF-2, but not that of RAR gamma; and (iv) the AF-1-AF-2 synergism and AF-1 phosphorylation site requirements for RA-responsive gene induction are promoter context-dependent. Thus, AF-1 and AF-2 of distinct RARs exert specific cellular and molecular functions in a cell-autonomous system mimicking physiological situations, and their phosphorylation by kinases belonging to two main signalling pathways is required to enable RARs to transduce the RA signal during F9 cell differentiation.[1]


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