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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

(Arg15, Arg21) VIP: evaluation of biological activity and localization to breast cancer tumors.

VIP analogs, which contain a single lysine amino acid, were synthesized and evaluated using breast cancer cells. (Arg15, Arg20) VIP, (Argl5, Arg21) VIP, and (Arg20, Arg21) VIP inhibited 125I-VIP binding to T47D cells with high affinity (IC50 values of 1.2, 1.0, and 0.8 nM, respectively). The VIP analogs elevated cAMP in T47D cells with ED50 values ranging from 0.1-1 nM. Because (Arg15, Arg21) VIP was the most potent at elevating cAMP, it was characterized further. (Arg15, Arg21) VIP transiently increased c-fos gene expression in breast cancer cells. N-Succinimidyl-4-18F (fluoromethly) benzoate was prepared in one chemical step from N-succinimidyl-4-(4-nitrobenzenesulfonyl)oxomethyl)benzoate by adding 18F in acetone at room temperature. This prosthetic group was then reacted with (Arg15, Arg21) VIP ((RR) VIP). (18F-RR) VIP bound with high affinity to T47D cells and was rapidly internalized. (18F-RR) VIP was injected intravenously into nude mice bearing breast cancer xenografts and after 4 h, the density of (18F-RR) VIP was elevated in the tumors relative to normal organs. These data suggest that VIP receptors may be used to localize breast cancer tumors.[1]


  1. (Arg15, Arg21) VIP: evaluation of biological activity and localization to breast cancer tumors. Moody, T.W., Leyton, J., Unsworth, E., John, C., Lang, L., Eckelman, W.C. Peptides (1998) [Pubmed]
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