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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Sparfloxacin resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae: involvement of multiple mutations in gyrA and parC genes.

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed among 150 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae 4 pneumococcal isolates with resistance to fluoroquinolones (MIC of ciprofloxacin, >/=32 microgram/ml; MIC of sparfloxacin, >/=16 microgram/ml). Gene amplification and sequencing analysis of gyrA and parC revealed nucleotide changes leading to amino acid substitutions in both GyrA and ParC of all four fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. In the case of strains 182 and 674 for which sparfloxacin MICs were 16 and 64 microgram/ml, respectively, nucleotide changes were detected at codon 81 in gyrA and codon 79 in parC; these changes led to an Ser-->Phe substitution in GyrA and an Ser-->Phe substitution in ParC. Strains 354 and 252, for which sparfloxacin MICs were 128 microgram/ml, revealed multiple mutations in both gyrA and parC. These strains exhibited nucleotide changes at codon 85 leading to a Glu-->Lys substitution in GyrA, in addition to Ser-79-->Tyr and Lys-137-->Asn substitutions in ParC. Moreover, strain 252 showed additional nucleotide changes at codon 93, which led to a Trp-->Arg substitution in GyrA. These results suggest that sparfloxacin resistance could be due to the multiple mutations in GyrA and ParC. However, it is possible that other yet unidentified mutations may also be involved in the high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in S. pneumoniae.[1]


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