The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

PKLR  -  pyruvate kinase, liver and RBC

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: PK1, PKL, PKR, PKRL, Pyruvate kinase 1, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of PKLR


High impact information on PKLR

  • These data suggest that the paxillin association with PKL is essential for normal integrin-mediated cell spreading, and locomotion and that this interaction is necessary for the regulation of Rac activity during these events [5].
  • Here, we demonstrate that the interaction of paxillin via its LD4 motif with the putative ARF-GAP paxillin kinase linker (PKL) (Turner et al., 1999), is critically involved in the regulation of Rac-dependent changes in the actin cytoskeleton that accompany cell spreading and motility [5].
  • Hnf1alpha dependence of hnf4alpha, hnf4gamma, hnf3gamma, and two previously characterized distal targets (glut2 and pklr) is established only after differentiated cells arise during pancreatic embryonic development [6].
  • A highly conserved haplotype at four markers flanking GBA (PKLR, D1S1595, D1S2721, and D1S2777) was observed on both the AJ chromosomes and the non-Jewish N370S chromosomes, suggesting the occurrence of a founder common to both populations [7].
  • The intron sequences of the human L-type pyruvate kinase gene (PKLR) were determined by using primers selected from the known cDNA sequence [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of PKLR

  • PK1 demonstrated antitumor activity in refractory cancers, no polymer-related toxicity, and proof of principle that polymer-drug conjugation decreases doxorubicin dose-limiting toxicities [9].

Biological context of PKLR

  • Common variants in the PKLR are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but because of strong linkage disequilibrium between variants, the actual susceptibility allele may be in a different gene [10].
  • Based on variability at the PKLR STRP and on the geographical distribution of LD, the expansion of the two main haplotypes may have predated the "Out of Africa" expansion of anatomically modern humans [11].
  • We have established the functional importance of PKR-RE1, a necessary transcriptional regulatory element in the erythroid-specific promoter of the human pyruvate kinase gene (PKLR) [12].
  • A splice mutation and a missense mutation were detected in the TRKA and PKLR genes from the homozygous proband, respectively [13].
  • Trinucleotide repeat polymorphism at the PKLR locus [14].

Anatomical context of PKLR

  • Isoforms that are expressed in the red cell, liver, pancreatic beta-cells, small intestine, and proximal renal tubule are encoded by the 12 exons of the PKLR gene, which maps to chromosome 1q23 [10].
  • G-->T transition at cDNA nt 110 (K37Q) in the PKLR (pyruvate kinase) gene is the molecular basis of a case of hereditary increase of red blood cell ATP [15].
  • This molecular phenotypic analysis of the null mutation in the PKLR gene provides evidence for a lack of M2PK in the mature RBCs of this patient and suggests that normal red cell functions and survival are achieved through a population of young erythroid cells released into the circulation in response to anemia [3].
  • HNF1-alpha nevertheless occupies the endogenous glut2 and pklr promoters in both pancreatic islet and liver cells [16].
  • These results suggest a GTP-Cdc42/GTP-Rac triggered multistep activation cascade leading to the stimulation of the adaptor function of PAK, which through interaction with PIX provokes a functional PKL PBS2-paxillin LD4 association and consequent recruitment to focal adhesions [17].

Associations of PKLR with chemical compounds

  • Analysis of limited tryptic digests and cyanogen bromide cleavage fragments of PK1 and PK5 indicate that the subunits of the two isozymes are significantly different [18].
  • M. racemosus hyphal cells grown on glutamic acid as the carbon source contained only the fastest electrophoretic form, designated PK1, while yeast cells grown on glucose contained only the slowest electrophoretic form, PK5 [18].
  • Intermediate electrophoretic forms PK2, PK3, and PK4 as well as PK1 and PK5 were found in hyphal cells grown on media containing fructose or cellibiose [18].
  • The serine protease domain of PK1 delta FE1X exhibits the amidolytic activity characteristic of wt t-PA [19].
  • PK1 comprises doxorubicin covalently bound to N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer by a peptidyl linker [9].

Other interactions of PKLR


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PKLR

  • We describe a novel homozygous null mutation of the PKLR gene found in a girl with a prenatal diagnosis of PK deficiency [3].
  • We analyzed the mutant enzymes of 10 unrelated patients with PKD, whose symptoms ranged from a mild, chronic hemolytic anemia to a severe anemia, by sequence analysis for the presence of alterations in the PKLR gene [23].
  • Deletion was evidenced by a Sybergreen based quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mapped using quantitative multiplex PCR of short fluorescent fragments spread along the whole sequence of the PKLR gene [24].
  • Using in situ hybridization, we have mapped the human liver-type pyruvate kinase gene (PKL) to band q21 of chromosome 1 [25].
  • Following storage in Tris-HCl (pH 7.4) buffer, a combination of HPLC and mass spectrometric analyses revealed that a significant amount of peptide bond cleavage occurred to produce the two peptides ArgProLys (RPK) and ArgProLysProGlnGln (RPKPQQ), with only a small amount of remaining intact SP [26].


  1. Mutations in pyruvate kinase. Beutler, E., Baronciani, L. Hum. Mutat. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Linkage disequilibrium of common Gaucher disease mutations with a polymorphic site in the pyruvate kinase (PKLR) gene. Rockah, R., Narinsky, R., Frydman, M., Cohen, I.J., Zaizov, R., Weizman, A., Frisch, A. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Life-threatening nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia in a patient with a null mutation in the PKLR gene and no compensatory PKM gene expression. Diez, A., Gilsanz, F., Martinez, J., Pérez-Benavente, S., Meza, N.W., Bautista, J.M. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase enhances gemcitabine-induced apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells. Ng SSW, n.u.l.l., Tsao, M.S., Chow, S., Hedley, D.W. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. The LD4 motif of paxillin regulates cell spreading and motility through an interaction with paxillin kinase linker (PKL). West, K.A., Zhang, H., Brown, M.C., Nikolopoulos, S.N., Riedy, M.C., Horwitz, A.F., Turner, C.E. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. A transcription factor regulatory circuit in differentiated pancreatic cells. Boj, S.F., Parrizas, M., Maestro, M.A., Ferrer, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Gaucher disease: the origins of the Ashkenazi Jewish N370S and 84GG acid beta-glucosidase mutations. Diaz, G.A., Gelb, B.D., Risch, N., Nygaard, T.G., Frisch, A., Cohen, I.J., Miranda, C.S., Amaral, O., Maire, I., Poenaru, L., Caillaud, C., Weizberg, M., Mistry, P., Desnick, R.J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Analysis of pyruvate kinase-deficiency mutations that produce nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. Baronciani, L., Beutler, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of PK1 [N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer doxorubicin]: first member of a new class of chemotherapeutic agents-drug-polymer conjugates. Cancer Research Campaign Phase I/II Committee. Vasey, P.A., Kaye, S.B., Morrison, R., Twelves, C., Wilson, P., Duncan, R., Thomson, A.H., Murray, L.S., Hilditch, T.E., Murray, T., Burtles, S., Fraier, D., Frigerio, E., Cassidy, J. Clin. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Liver pyruvate kinase polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes in northern European Caucasians. Wang, H., Chu, W., Das, S.K., Ren, Q., Hasstedt, S.J., Elbein, S.C. Diabetes (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. PKLR- GBA region shows almost complete linkage disequilibrium over 70 kb in a set of worldwide populations. Mateu, E., Pérez-Lezaun, A., Martínez-Arias, R., Andrés, A., Vallés, M., Bertranpetit, J., Calafell, F. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Pyruvate kinase regulatory element 1 (PKR-RE1) mediates hexokinase gene expression in K562 cells. de Vooght, K.M., van Wijk, R., van Oirschot, B.A., Rijksen, G., van Solinge, W.W. Blood Cells Mol. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA): novel mutations of the TRKA (NTRK1) gene, a putative uniparental disomy, and a linkage of the mutant TRKA and PKLR genes in a family with CIPA and pyruvate kinase deficiency. Indo, Y., Mardy, S., Miura, Y., Moosa, A., Ismail, E.A., Toscano, E., Andria, G., Pavone, V., Brown, D.L., Brooks, A., Endo, F., Matsuda, I. Hum. Mutat. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Trinucleotide repeat polymorphism at the PKLR locus. Lenzner, C., Jacobasch, G., Reis, A., Thiele, B., Nürnberg, P. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. G-->T transition at cDNA nt 110 (K37Q) in the PKLR (pyruvate kinase) gene is the molecular basis of a case of hereditary increase of red blood cell ATP. Beutler, E., Westwood, B., van Zwieten, R., Roos, D. Hum. Mutat. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Hepatic nuclear factor 1-alpha directs nucleosomal hyperacetylation to its tissue-specific transcriptional targets. Párrizas, M., Maestro, M.A., Boj, S.F., Paniagua, A., Casamitjana, R., Gomis, R., Rivera, F., Ferrer, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Paxillin-dependent paxillin kinase linker and p21-activated kinase localization to focal adhesions involves a multistep activation pathway. Brown, M.C., West, K.A., Turner, C.E. Mol. Biol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Purification and properties of two isozymes of pyruvate kinase from Mucor racemosus. Hohn, T.M., Paznokas, J.L. J. Bacteriol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Replacement of finger and growth factor domains of tissue plasminogen activator with plasminogen kringle 1. Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of a novel chimera containing a high affinity fibrin-binding domain linked to a heterologous protein. Langer-Safer, P.R., Ahern, T.J., Angus, L.B., Barone, K.M., Brenner, M.J., Horgan, P.G., Morris, G.E., Stoudemire, J.B., Timony, G.A., Larsen, G.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Evaluation of myc E-box phylogenetic footprints in glycolytic genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Kim, J.W., Zeller, K.I., Wang, Y., Jegga, A.G., Aronow, B.J., O'Donnell, K.A., Dang, C.V. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. A new PKLR gene mutation in the R-type promoter region affects the gene transcription causing pyruvate kinase deficiency. Manco, L., Ribeiro, M.L., Máximo, V., Almeida, H., Costa, A., Freitas, O., Barbot, J., Abade, A., Tamagnini, G. Br. J. Haematol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Structure and function of human erythrocyte pyruvate kinase. Molecular basis of nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. Valentini, G., Chiarelli, L.R., Fortin, R., Dolzan, M., Galizzi, A., Abraham, D.J., Wang, C., Bianchi, P., Zanella, A., Mattevi, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Eight novel mutations and consequences on mRNA and protein level in pyruvate kinase-deficient patients with nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. Kugler, W., Willaschek, C., Holtz, C., Ohlenbusch, A., Laspe, P., Krügener, R., Muirhead, H., Schröter, W., Lakomek, M. Hum. Mutat. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Severe hemolytic anemia in a Vietnamese family, associated with novel mutations in the gene encoding for pyruvate kinase. Costa, C., Albuisson, J., Le, T.H., Max-Audit, I., Dinh, K.T., Tosi, M., Goossens, M., Pissard, S. Haematologica (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. The human liver-type pyruvate kinase (PKL) gene is on chromosome 1 at band q21. Satoh, H., Tani, K., Yoshida, M.C., Sasaki, M., Miwa, S., Fujii, H. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Chemical degradation of 3H-labeled substance P in tris buffer solution. Higa, T., Desiderio, D.M. Anal. Biochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities