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Gene Review

act-5  -  Protein ACT-5

Caenorhabditis elegans

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High impact information on Actins

  • Together with immuno-electron microscopy experiments that indicated ACT-5 is enriched within microvilli themselves, these results suggest a microvillus-specific function for act-5, and further, they raise the possibility that specific actins may be specialized for building microvilli and related structures [1].
  • To investigate if the distinction between muscle and cytoplasmic actins evidenced by gene expression analysis is related to the sequence of corresponding genes, we compare the sequences of actin genes of these two insect species and of other Metazoa [2].
  • Down-regulated proteins included those related to the cell cycle such as MCM-7, PCN-1, and the mitotic checkpoint protein, while up-regulated proteins included structural proteins such as actins, LEV-11, DIM-1, VAB-21, metabolic enzymes such as ATP synthase, ALH-12, fluctose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase and GPD-3, and galectins [3].
  • Immunolocalizations of actins and tubulins and in vivo observation of green fluorescent protein decorated actin filaments and microtubules in nematode infected root cells revealed that major rearrangements of the cytoskeleton occur during the formation of nematode induced feeding cells [4].
  • These data suggest that the numerous introns found in all actins are of ancient origin [5].

Biological context of Actins


Associations of Actins with chemical compounds

  • The sequences of the first nine amino acids at the amino terminal end of the plant actins are far more conserved between distant plant actins than the corresponding sequences in distantly related animal actin genes, suggesting a unique and conserved function for the NH2 terminal sequence in higher plants [5].


  1. ACT-5 is an essential Caenorhabditis elegans actin required for intestinal microvilli formation. MacQueen, A.J., Baggett, J.J., Perumov, N., Bauer, R.A., Januszewski, T., Schriefer, L., Waddle, J.A. Mol. Biol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Insect muscle actins differ distinctly from invertebrate and vertebrate cytoplasmic actins. Mounier, N., Gouy, M., Mouchiroud, D., Prudhomme, J.C. J. Mol. Evol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Proteomic analysis of protein expression profiles during Caenorhabditis elegans development using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Tabuse, Y., Nabetani, T., Tsugita, A. Proteomics (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. The cytoskeleton in nematode feeding sites. de Almeida Engler, J., Van Poucke, K., Karimi, M., De Groodt, R., Gheysen, G., Engler, G., Gheysen, G. Communications in agricultural and applied biological sciences. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Genes encoding actin in higher plants: intron positions are highly conserved but the coding sequences are not. Shah, D.M., Hightower, R.C., Meagher, R.B. J. Mol. Appl. Genet. (1983) [Pubmed]
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