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Gene Review

ppa  -  partner of paired

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG9952, Dmel\CG9952, FBXL14, I-55, Ppa
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High impact information on ppa

  • In normal development, Prd functions only in cells in which ppa mRNA expression has been repressed by another segmentation protein, Even-skipped (Eve) [1].
  • RESULTS: We identified a gene, partner of paired (ppa), whose properties suggest that localized receptors for protein degradation are integrated into regulatory networks of transcription factors to ensure robust spatial regulation of gene expression [1].
  • We examined embryonic expression of all predicted F-box genes in Drosophila and found that mRNAs of 21 out of 23 predicted F-box genes are expressed uniformly in early Drosophila embryos, whereas ppa and CG4911 mRNAs are patterned, CG4911 being expressed at the positions of gastrulation folds [2].
  • We also identified and tested expression of ppa in zebrafish, which has two highly conserved homologs, ppaA and ppaB, and found that both are expressed during embryogenesis and have enriched mRNA expression in regions including the neural tube, the head, and the fin buds [2].

Regulatory relationships of ppa

  • When ppa function was removed from cells that express prd mRNA, Prd protein levels increased [1].

Other interactions of ppa

  • When ppa was expressed ectopically in these cells, Prd protein, but not mRNA, levels diminished [1].


  1. Targeted localized degradation of Paired protein in Drosophila development. Raj, L., Vivekanand, P., Das, T.K., Badam, E., Fernandes, M., Finley, R.L., Brent, R., Appel, L.F., Hanes, S.D., Weir, M. Curr. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. A conserved F-box gene with unusual transcript localization. Das, T., Purkayastha-Mukherjee, C., D'Angelo, J., Weir, M. Dev. Genes Evol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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