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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Postoperative nausea and vomiting in children using patient-controlled analgesia: the effect of prophylactic intravenous dixyrazine.

BACKGROUND: Although patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with morphine provides a high degree of satisfactory postoperative analgesia in children, it is often associated with a high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Our aim in this study was to evaluate the prophylactic effect of dixyrazine, a phenothiazine with proven anti-emetic properties. METHODS: The incidence of nausea and vomiting was studied in 60 children using PCA after major surgery. The patients were randomised to receive either dixyrazine 0.25 mg kg-1 or placebo on the induction of anaesthesia in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. The anaesthetic technique was standardised. The PCA pump was programmed to deliver bolus doses of morphine of 20 micrograms kg-1 with a continuous background infusion of 8-10 micrograms kg-1 h-1. Nausea, vomiting, sedation and pain scores were noted every 3 h for a period of 24 h. RESULTS: The morphine consumption of morphine was the same in both groups. During the stay in the recovery room the incidence of vomiting was 3% in the dixyrazine group compared to 30% in the placebo group (P < 0.05). On the ward, 57% versus 83% of the children vomited (P < 0.05). Rescue antiemetics were significantly lower, 30%, in the dixyrazine group compared to 60% in the placebo group (P < 0.05). Higher sedation scores were recorded for the dixyrazine group in the recovery room. No other adverse effects were found. CONCLUSION: A significant number of children using PCA with morphine after major surgery experience PONV. Although prophylactic dixyrazine reduces the incidence and severity of vomiting, the incidence still remains high.[1]


  1. Postoperative nausea and vomiting in children using patient-controlled analgesia: the effect of prophylactic intravenous dixyrazine. Kokinsky, E., Thornberg, E., Nilsson, K., Larsson, L.E. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. (1999) [Pubmed]
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