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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

SRF protein is upregulated during stretch-induced hypertrophy of rooster ALD muscle.

Serum response element 1 has previously been reported to be necessary and sufficient for activation of the skeletal alpha-actin promoter during hypertrophy of the anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) muscle of roosters [J. A. Carson, R. J. Schwartz, and F. W. Booth. Am. J. Physiol. 270 (Cell Physiol. 39): C1624-C1633, 1996]. Serum response factor ( SRF) protein is the transcription factor that binds as a homodimer to serum response element 1 and activates the skeletal alpha-actin promoter. An increased expression of exogenous SRF protein in replicating C2C12 myoblasts induced a three- to fourfold activation of the skeletal alpha-actin promoter (L. Wei, W. Zhou, J. D. Croissant, F.-E. Johansen, R. Prywes, A. Balasubramamyan, and R. J. Schwartz. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 30287-30294, 1998). Thus we hypothesized that SRF protein concentration would be increased during hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. In the present study, 10% of the rooster's body weight was attached to the left wing to induce enlargement of the ALD muscle compared with the contralateral muscle. With Western analysis, a significant increase in SRF protein per gram of wet weight of the ALD muscle was noted at 7 and 13 days of hypertrophy. Furthermore, the increase in SRF protein occurred in both crude nuclear protein and cytoplasmic fractions in 7-day stretched ALD muscles. This is the first report showing increased protein concentration for a transcription factor whose regulatory element in the skeletal alpha-actin promoter has previously been shown to be required for the transduction of a hypertrophy signal in overloaded skeletal muscle of an animal.[1]


  1. SRF protein is upregulated during stretch-induced hypertrophy of rooster ALD muscle. Flück, M., Carson, J.A., Schwartz, R.J., Booth, F.W. J. Appl. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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