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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Differential accumulation of advanced glycation end products in the course of diabetic retinopathy.

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glycated proteins, formed by reaction of glucose and protein, react further yielding numerous, mostly undefined advanced glycation end products (AGE). The recently characterized imidazolone-type AGE (AG-1) is non-oxidatively formed involving 3-deoxyglucosone whereas some AGEs, particularly N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine ( CML), are formed only in the presence of oxygen. METHODS: To study the possible contribution of oxidative and non-oxidative AGE formation in the development of diabetic retinopathy antibodies directed against CML-type and imidazolone-type AGEs were characterized by dot blot analysis and used to localize these well-characterized epitops in the retinas from diabetic rats (early course) and from human Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus with laser-treated proliferative diabetic retinopathy (late course). RESULTS: In non-diabetic rats CML was moderately positive in neuroglial and vascular structures of non-diabetic rat retinas and increased strongly in diabetic retinas. Anti-imidiazolone antibody staining was strongly positive only in diabetic capillaries. Advanced human diabetic retinopathy showed strong CML-immunolabelling of the entire retina whereas control samples showed moderate staining of neuroglial structures only with the polyclonal CML-antibody. Anti-imidiazolone antibody staining was faint in the inner retina of control sections but were strong throughout the entire diabetic retina. Immunolabelling for the AGE-receptor was congruent with a marker of Müller cells. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: Our data indicate that the oxidatively formed CML is present in non-diabetic retinas as a regular constituent but increases in diabetes both in neuroglial and vascular components. Imidazolone-type AGE are restricted to microvessels and spread during later stages over the entire retina, co-localizing with the expression of AGE-receptor.[1]


  1. Differential accumulation of advanced glycation end products in the course of diabetic retinopathy. Hammes, H.P., Alt, A., Niwa, T., Clausen, J.T., Bretzel, R.G., Brownlee, M., Schleicher, E.D. Diabetologia (1999) [Pubmed]
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