The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Neuronal mechanisms for the control of body orientation in Clione I. Spatial zones of activity of different neuron groups.

The marine mollusk Clione limacina, when swimming, can stabilize different body orientations in the gravitational field. Here we describe one of the modes of operation of the postural network in Clione-maintenance of the vertical, head-up orientation. Experiments were performed on the CNS-statocyst preparation. Spike discharges in the axons of different types of neurons were recorded extracellularly when the preparation was rotated in space through 360 degrees in different planes. We characterized the spatial zones of activity of the tail and wing motor neurons as well as of the CPB3 interneurons mediating the effects of statocyst receptor cells on the tail motor neurons. It was found that the activity of the tail motor neurons increased with deviation of the preparation from the normal, rostral-side-up orientation. Their zones of activity were very wide ( approximately 180 degrees ). According to the zone position, three distinct groups of tail motor neuron (T1- T3) could be distinguished. The T1 group had a center of the zone near the ventral-side-up orientation, whereas the zones of T2 and T3 had their centers near the left-side-up and the right-side-up positions, respectively. By comparing the zone of activity with the direction of tail bending elicited by each of the groups, one can conclude that gravitational reflexes mediated by the T1, T2, and T3 groups will evoke turning of the animal toward the head-up orientation. Two identified wing motor neurons, 1A and 2A, causing the wing beating, were involved in gravitational reactions. They were activated with the downward inclination of the ipsilateral side. Opposite reactions were observed in the motor neurons responsible for the wing retraction. A presumed motor effect of these reactions is an increase of oscillations in the wing that is directed downward and turning of Clione toward the head-up orientation. Among the CPB3 interneurons, at least four groups could be distinguished. In three of them (IN1, IN2, and IN3), the zones of activity were similar to those of the three groups (T1, T2, and T3) of the tail motor neurons. The group IN4 had the center of its zone in the dorsal-side-up position; a corresponding group was not found among the tail motor neurons. In lesion experiments, it was found that gravitational input mediated by a single CPB3 interneuron produced activation of its target tail motor neurons in their normal zones, but the strength of response was reduced considerably. This finding suggests that several interneurons with similar spatial zones converge on individual tail motor neurons. In conclusion, because of a novel method, activity of the neuronal network responsible for the postural control in Clione was characterized in the terms of gravitational responses in different neuron groups comprising the network.[1]


  1. Neuronal mechanisms for the control of body orientation in Clione I. Spatial zones of activity of different neuron groups. Deliagina, T.G., Orlovsky, G.N., Selverston, A.I., Arshavsky, Y.I. J. Neurophysiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities