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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Interneurons


Psychiatry related information on Interneurons


High impact information on Interneurons

  • Moreover, we found that GRP receptor (GRPR) is expressed in GABAergic interneurons of the lateral nucleus [11].
  • Using in vivo function and protein interaction assays, we found that Lhx3 binds directly to the LIM cofactor NLI to trigger V2 interneuron differentiation [12].
  • These mice also showed aberrant migration and differentiation of interneurons containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic interneurons) in the ganglionic eminence and neocortex as well as abnormal testicular differentiation [13].
  • Lhx3 is involved in the generation of two adjacent, but distinct, cell types for locomotion, motor neurons and V2 interneurons [12].
  • Upon Pax6 inactivation, the potential of RPCs becomes entirely restricted to only one of the cell fates normally available to RPCs, resulting in the exclusive generation of amacrine interneurons [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Interneurons


Biological context of Interneurons


Anatomical context of Interneurons


Associations of Interneurons with chemical compounds

  • Synchronized oscillations in interneuron networks driven by metabotropic glutamate receptor activation [30].
  • In lamprey, 5-HT neurons control apamine-sensitive KCa channels in spinal locomotor network interneurons, thereby in addition regulating the duration of locomotor bursts [31].
  • Acetylcholine inhibits identified interneurons in the cat lateral geniculate nucleus [32].
  • Thus, proctolin is a cardioactive peptide, a skeletal neuromuscular transmitter, a hindgut neuropeptide, a peptide of CNS interneurons (Keshishian & O'Shea 1984) and may have humoral roles [33].
  • Nitric oxide mediates network oscillations of olfactory interneurons in a terrestrial mollusc [34].

Gene context of Interneurons

  • A population of interneurons that express Engrailed1 (EN1), however, also fails to differentiate in Isl1 mutant embryos [35].
  • In Gdf7-null mutant embryos, the generation of D1A neurons is eliminated but D1B neurons and other identified dorsal interneurons are unaffected [36].
  • Neuronal patterning by BMPs: a requirement for GDF7 in the generation of a discrete class of commissural interneurons in the mouse spinal cord [36].
  • Mice lacking Dlx1 show subtype-specific loss of interneurons, reduced inhibition and epilepsy [24].
  • This system of AMPA receptor-dependent synaptic NMDA receptor localization was preserved in hippocampal interneurons but reversed in hippocampal pyramidal neurons [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Interneurons


  1. EGF amplifies the replacement of parvalbumin-expressing striatal interneurons after ischemia. Teramoto, T., Qiu, J., Plumier, J.C., Moskowitz, M.A. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Reliability and effectiveness of transmission from exteroceptive sensory neurons to spiking local interneurons in the locust. Burrows, M. J. Neurosci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Apparent loss and hypertrophy of interneurons in a mouse model of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis: evidence for partial response to insulin-like growth factor-1 treatment. Cooper, J.D., Messer, A., Feng, A.K., Chua-Couzens, J., Mobley, W.C. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Differential expression of AMPA receptor subunits in NOS-positive neurons of cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. Catania, M.V., Tölle, T.R., Monyer, H. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Cortical synaptic density is reduced in mild to moderate human immunodeficiency virus neurocognitive disorder. HNRC Group. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center. Everall, I.P., Heaton, R.K., Marcotte, T.D., Ellis, R.J., McCutchan, J.A., Atkinson, J.H., Grant, I., Mallory, M., Masliah, E. Brain Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Density of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 messenger RNA-containing neurons that express the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR2A in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Woo, T.U., Walsh, J.P., Benes, F.M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Cholinergic suppression: a postsynaptic mechanism of long-term associative learning. Morielli, A.D., Matera, E.M., Kovac, M.P., Shrum, R.G., McCormack, K.J., Davis, W.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Transcriptional dysregulation in striatal projection- and interneurons in a mouse model of Huntington's disease: neuronal selectivity and potential neuroprotective role of HAP1. Zucker, B., Luthi-Carter, R., Kama, J.A., Dunah, A.W., Stern, E.A., Fox, J.H., Standaert, D.G., Young, A.B., Augood, S.J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Activity-dependent metaplasticity of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in the lamprey spinal cord locomotor network. Parker, D., Grillner, S. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in the neocortex are resistant to degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Hof, P.R., Cox, K., Young, W.G., Celio, M.R., Rogers, J., Morrison, J.H. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification of a signaling network in lateral nucleus of amygdala important for inhibiting memory specifically related to learned fear. Shumyatsky, G.P., Tsvetkov, E., Malleret, G., Vronskaya, S., Hatton, M., Hampton, L., Battey, J.F., Dulac, C., Kandel, E.R., Bolshakov, V.Y. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. LIM factor Lhx3 contributes to the specification of motor neuron and interneuron identity through cell-type-specific protein-protein interactions. Thaler, J.P., Lee, S.K., Jurata, L.W., Gill, G.N., Pfaff, S.L. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Mutation of ARX causes abnormal development of forebrain and testes in mice and X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia in humans. Kitamura, K., Yanazawa, M., Sugiyama, N., Miura, H., Iizuka-Kogo, A., Kusaka, M., Omichi, K., Suzuki, R., Kato-Fukui, Y., Kamiirisa, K., Matsuo, M., Kamijo, S., Kasahara, M., Yoshioka, H., Ogata, T., Fukuda, T., Kondo, I., Kato, M., Dobyns, W.B., Yokoyama, M., Morohashi, K. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Pax6 is required for the multipotent state of retinal progenitor cells. Marquardt, T., Ashery-Padan, R., Andrejewski, N., Scardigli, R., Guillemot, F., Gruss, P. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. The distinct role of mGlu1 receptors in post-ischemic neuronal death. Pellegrini-Giampietro, D.E. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Functional recovery of glycine receptors in spastic murine model of startle disease. Molon, A., Di Giovanni, S., Hathout, Y., Natale, J., Hoffman, E.P. Neurobiol. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Alterations of interneurons of the gerbil hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia: effect of pitavastatin. Himeda, T., Hayakawa, N., Tounai, H., Sakuma, M., Kato, H., Araki, T. Neuropsychopharmacology (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Differential NPY mRNA expression in granule cells and interneurons of the rat dentate gyrus after kainic acid injection. Gruber, B., Greber, S., Rupp, E., Sperk, G. Hippocampus. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Baclofen inhibits heroin self-administration behavior and mesolimbic dopamine release. Xi, Z.X., Stein, E.A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Extracellular potassium ions mediate specific neuronal interaction. Yarom, Y., Spira, M.E. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Proper development of relay somatic sensory neurons and D2/D4 interneurons requires homeobox genes Rnx/Tlx-3 and Tlx-1. Qian, Y., Shirasawa, S., Chen, C.L., Cheng, L., Ma, Q. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Regulation of neocortical interneuron development and the implications for neurodevelopmental disorders. Levitt, P., Eagleson, K.L., Powell, E.M. Trends Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. H2 histamine receptor-phosphorylation of Kv3.2 modulates interneuron fast spiking. Atzori, M., Lau, D., Tansey, E.P., Chow, A., Ozaita, A., Rudy, B., McBain, C.J. Nat. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Mice lacking Dlx1 show subtype-specific loss of interneurons, reduced inhibition and epilepsy. Cobos, I., Calcagnotto, M.E., Vilaythong, A.J., Thwin, M.T., Noebels, J.L., Baraban, S.C., Rubenstein, J.L. Nat. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. A sonic hedgehog-independent, retinoid-activated pathway of neurogenesis in the ventral spinal cord. Pierani, A., Brenner-Morton, S., Chiang, C., Jessell, T.M. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Crx, a novel otx-like homeobox gene, shows photoreceptor-specific expression and regulates photoreceptor differentiation. Furukawa, T., Morrow, E.M., Cepko, C.L. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Central nervous system neuronal migration. Hatten, M.E. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Endogenous cannabinoids mediate retrograde signalling at hippocampal synapses. Wilson, R.I., Nicoll, R.A. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Parvalbumin in most gamma-aminobutyric acid-containing neurons of the rat cerebral cortex. Celio, M.R. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Synchronized oscillations in interneuron networks driven by metabotropic glutamate receptor activation. Whittington, M.A., Traub, R.D., Jefferys, J.G. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Control of lamprey locomotor neurons by colocalized monoamine transmitters. Schotland, J., Shupliakov, O., Wikström, M., Brodin, L., Srinivasan, M., You, Z.B., Herrera-Marschitz, M., Zhang, W., Hökfelt, T., Grillner, S. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Acetylcholine inhibits identified interneurons in the cat lateral geniculate nucleus. McCormick, D.A., Pape, H.C. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  33. Neuropeptide function: the invertebrate contribution. O'Shea, M., Schaffer, M. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  34. Nitric oxide mediates network oscillations of olfactory interneurons in a terrestrial mollusc. Gelperin, A. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Requirement for LIM homeobox gene Isl1 in motor neuron generation reveals a motor neuron-dependent step in interneuron differentiation. Pfaff, S.L., Mendelsohn, M., Stewart, C.L., Edlund, T., Jessell, T.M. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Neuronal patterning by BMPs: a requirement for GDF7 in the generation of a discrete class of commissural interneurons in the mouse spinal cord. Lee, K.J., Mendelsohn, M., Jessell, T.M. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. AMPA receptor-dependent clustering of synaptic NMDA receptors is mediated by Stargazin and NR2A/B in spinal neurons and hippocampal interneurons. Mi, R., Sia, G.M., Rosen, K., Tang, X., Moghekar, A., Black, J.L., McEnery, M., Huganir, R.L., O'Brien, R.J. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Patch-clamp detection of neurotransmitters in capillary electrophoresis. Orwar, O., Jardemark, K., Jacobson, I., Moscho, A., Fishman, H.A., Scheller, R.H., Zare, R.N. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  39. Dormancy of inhibitory interneurons in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Bekenstein, J.W., Lothman, E.W. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  40. Early-onset epilepsy and postnatal lethality associated with an editing-deficient GluR-B allele in mice. Brusa, R., Zimmermann, F., Koh, D.S., Feldmeyer, D., Gass, P., Seeburg, P.H., Sprengel, R. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  41. The distribution of glutamate receptors in cultured rat hippocampal neurons: postsynaptic clustering of AMPA-selective subunits. Craig, A.M., Blackstone, C.D., Huganir, R.L., Banker, G. Neuron (1993) [Pubmed]
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