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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Early increase in cyclin-D1 expression and accelerated entry of mouse hepatocytes into S phase after administration of the mitogen 1, 4-Bis[2-(3,5-Dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene.

We have previously demonstrated that hepatocyte proliferation induced by the mitogen 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) is independent of changes in cytokines, immediate early genes, and transcription factors that are considered to be necessary for regeneration of the liver after partial hepatectomy (PH) or necrosis. To further investigate the differences between mitogen-induced mouse hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration after PH, we have measured the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3, cyclin E, and cyclin A and of the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6. The involvement of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27 and of the oncosuppressor gene p53 was also examined at different times after stimulation of hepatocyte proliferation. Results showed that a single administration of TCPOBOP caused a very rapid increase in the levels of cyclin D1, a G1 protein, when compared with two thirds PH (8 hours versus 30 hours). The early increase in cyclin D1 protein levels was associated with a faster onset of increased expression of S-phase- associated cyclin A (24 hours versus 36 hours with PH mice). Accordingly, measurement of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation revealed that, although approximately 8% of hepatocytes were BrdU-positive as early as 24 hours after TCPOBOP, no significant changes in BrdU incorporation were observed at the same time point after two thirds PH. The expression of other proteins involved in cell cycle control, such as cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4, CDK2, CDK6), was also analyzed. Results showed that expression of CDK2 was induced much more rapidly in TCPOBOP-treated mice (2 hours) than in mice subjected to PH (36 hours). A different pattern of expression in the two models of hepatocyte proliferation, although less dramatic, was also observed for CDK4 and CDK6. Expression of the CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 and the oncosuppressor gene p53 variably increased after two thirds PH, whereas basically no change in protein levels was found in TCPOBOP-treated mice. The results demonstrate that profound differences in many cell cycle-regulatory proteins exist between direct hyperplasia and compensatory regeneration. Cyclin D1 induction is one of the earlier events in hepatocyte proliferation induced by the primary mitogen TCPOBOP and suggests that a direct effect of the mitogen on this cyclin may be responsible for the rapid onset of DNA synthesis observed in TCPOBOP-induced hyperplasia.[1]


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