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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effects of sustained-release methoprene and a combined formulation of liquid methoprene and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis on insects in salt marshes.

Aquatic insects are an important component of the food web in salt marshes, therefore it is necessary to test whether pesticides used to control mosquitoes in salt marshes are safe for nontarget insects. We tested the nontarget effects of a combined formulation (duplex) of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (B.t.i.) and liquid methoprene (an insect development regulator) or sustained-release methoprene pellets (Altosid(R) pellets) by applying these materials to replicated salt marsh ponds at maximum label rates. Untreated ponds served as controls. We measured effects of the pesticides by rearing immature mosquitoes (Aedes dorsalis) and water boatmen (Trichocorixa reticulata) in predator-exclusion cages and by monitoring uncaged populations of invertebrates using replicated sweep-net samples. Both pesticides killed caged mosquitoes, and the activity of the Altosid(R) pellets continued through 99 days. There were no detectable effects of either pesticide on the survival or maturation of T. reticulata, or on abundances of uncaged invertebrates. The long-term activity of the pellets could help minimize mosquito abatement activity in salt marshes where there are breeding birds or endangered species. However, other studies suggest that this advantage needs to be balanced against the risks that sustained-release formulations could lead to development of resistance in mosquitoes or that initially undetected nontarget effects could build over time.[1]


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