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Chemical Compound Review

ALTOSID     propan-2-yl (2E,4E)-11-methoxy-3,7,11...

Synonyms: Juvemon, Metopreno, Pharoid, Yuvemon, Diacon, ...
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Disease relevance of Methoprene

  • Finally, feeding males with fluvastatin, a juvenile hormone (JH) inhibitor, also led to start/stop feminization, and this effect is reversible by the simultaneous application of methoprene, a JH analog, suggesting the existence of a neuroendocrine control, by JH, of such behavioral dimorphism [1].
  • These results demonstrate that methoprene elicits significant toxicity to endocrine-related processes in the 5-50 nM concentration range [2].
  • We tested the nontarget effects of a combined formulation (duplex) of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (B.t.i.) and liquid methoprene (an insect development regulator) or sustained-release methoprene pellets (Altosid(R) pellets) by applying these materials to replicated salt marsh ponds at maximum label rates [3].
  • Methoprene exposure resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in the metabolic androgenization ratio [4].
  • The invasion and subsequent spread of the mosquito-borne West Nile virus in the United States has resulted in increased use of methoprene [5].

Psychiatry related information on Methoprene

  • Exposure to 160 nM methoprene along with food deprivation and crowding caused a significant reduction in the percentage of males produced during the early phase of the sexual cycle and significantly increased the percentage of males produced during the later stages of the cycle [6].

High impact information on Methoprene


Chemical compound and disease context of Methoprene


Biological context of Methoprene

  • Previous results have demonstrated a mechanism of resistance involving an intracellular JH binding protein that has reduced ligand affinity in Met flies [8].
  • In competition studies, JH II and JH III competed for 3H-JH I binding sites, whereas IVMA, hydroprene, and methoprene did not [11].
  • Furthermore, topical methoprene application to pupae leads to the ectopic accumulation of JhI-1 and JhI-26 transcripts [16].
  • The juvenile hormone analogue, methoprene, inhibits ecdysterone induction of small heat shock protein gene expression [17].
  • When Vg synthesis was prematurely induced by injection of methoprene into fifth-stage female larvae, the kinetics of mRNA accumulation were similar to those of primary stimulation in the adult [18].

Anatomical context of Methoprene

  • Levels of vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA in Locusta migratoria fat body were determined as indicators of gene expression induced by the juvenile hormone analog methoprene [18].
  • Here we show that application of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene mimics the Sex-Peptide-mediated stimulation of vitellogenic oocyte progression in sexually mature virgin females [19].
  • During the primary response to methoprene (in female locusts in which the corpora allata had been destroyed immediately after emergence), Vg mRNA was first detected after 18-24 hr and accumulated rapidly between 36 and 48 hr [18].
  • Treatment of another subset of dark-reared bees with the JH analog, methoprene, also had no effect of the growth of the MB neuropil [20].
  • To study the effect of flight experience and juvenile hormone on these changes within the mushroom bodies, young worker bees were treated with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene but a subset was prevented from foraging (big back bees) [21].

Associations of Methoprene with other chemical compounds

  • Using an ethyl methane sulfonate mutagenesis screen, we have selected two noncomplementing mutants, one of which is nearly 100 times more resistant than wild-type to either methoprene or juvenile hormone III topically applied or incorporated into the diet [22].
  • The methoprene-resistant mutations, Met1 and Met2, were 10 and 6 times more resistant to S31183 in the white puparial assay and about 20 times more resistant in the larval feeding experiments than the wild-type, indicating that the effects seen are typical of JH [23].
  • Effects of methoprene, its metabolites, and breakdown products on retinoid-activated pathways in transfected cell lines [24].
  • Competition between juvenile hormone antagonist precocene II and juvenile hormone analog: methoprene in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans [25].
  • A solid phase extraction reversed-phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of methoprene, permethrin and selected metabolites in rat plasma and urine [26].

Gene context of Methoprene

  • As we predicted, methoprene phenocopies a subset of previously described BRC defects; it also phenocopies Deformed and produces abnormalities not associated with known mutations [27].
  • In Drosophila melanogaster L57 cells, the JHRE-regulated reporter gene was induced by JH I, JH III, methoprene, and hydroprene [28].
  • Since the Met mutation also confers resistance to methoprene-induced abnormalities in adult cuticle formation, the autonomy of Met expression could be evaluated in flies mosiac for this mutation [22].
  • Treatment of blood-fed females with methoprene, an analogue of JH, resulted in decrease of the Tsf message [29].
  • The JH analog, methoprene, increased both JH esterase and EH activity as high as 2.5-fold [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Methoprene

  • Quantitative PCR analyses showed that methoprene affected midgut remodeling by modulating the expression of ecdysone receptor B, ultraspiracle A, broad complex, E93, ftz-f1, dronc and drice, the genes that are shown to play key roles in 20E action and PCD [31].
  • Here, I present evidence that the JH analog methoprene applied to final instar larvae of a stalk-eyed fly (Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni) can induce males to produce larger eye-stalks relative to their body size [32].
  • Ecdysteroid-dependent proliferative arrest and differentiation are blocked by coculture with methoprene but methoprene has no effect on ecdysteroid-dependent proliferation [33].
  • Results from the field trials and comparison bioassays indicated that the causes of the poor inhibition were an existing cross-resistance to methoprene followed by an induction of resistance resulting from the continuous exposure to methoprene [34].
  • Vg-1 mRNA appeared after treatment with the juvenile hormone analogue, methoprene, implying transcriptional regulation [35].


  1. Neuroendocrine control of a sexually dimorphic behavior by a few neurons of the pars intercerebralis in Drosophila. Belgacem, Y.H., Martin, J.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Low exposure concentration effects of methoprene on endocrine-regulated processes in the crustacean Daphnia magna. Olmstead, A.W., LeBlanc, G.L. Toxicol. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of sustained-release methoprene and a combined formulation of liquid methoprene and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis on insects in salt marshes. Lawler, S.P., Dritz, D.A., Jensen, T. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Testosterone and energy metabolism in the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea) following exposure to endocrine disruptors. Verslycke, T., Poelmans, S., De Wasch, K., De Brabander, H.F., Janssen, C.R. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Development of a HPLC/tandem-MS method for the analysis of the larvicides methoprene, hydroprene, and kinoprene at trace levels using Diels-Alder derivatization. Aronov, P.A., Dettmer, K., Christiansen, J.A., Cornel, A.J., Hammock, B.D. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Temporal and quantitative changes in sexual reproductive cycling of the cladoceran Daphnia magna by a juvenile hormone analog. Olmstead, A.W., LeBlanc, G.A. J. Exp. Zool. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Insect juvenile hormone resistance gene homology with the bHLH-PAS family of transcriptional regulators. Ashok, M., Turner, C., Wilson, T.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Insecticide resistance resulting from an absence of target-site gene product. Wilson, T.G., Ashok, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Resistance to juvenile hormone and an insect growth regulator in Drosophila is associated with an altered cytosolic juvenile hormone-binding protein. Shemshedini, L., Wilson, T.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Juvenile hormone receptors in insect larval epidermis: identification by photoaffinity labeling. Palli, S.R., Osir, E.O., Eng, W., Boehm, M.F., Edwards, M., Kulcsar, P., Ujvary, I., Hiruma, K., Prestwich, G.D., Riddiford, L.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Nuclear binding sites for juvenile hormone and its analogs in the epidermis of the tobacco hornworm. Osir, E.O., Riddiford, L.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Developmental toxicity of methoprene and several degradation products in Xenopus laevis. Degitz, S.J., Durhan, E.J., Tietge, J.E., Kosian, P.A., Holcombe, G.W., Ankley, G.T. Aquat. Toxicol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Acute toxicity of selected pesticides to the Pacific blue-eye, Pseudomugil signifer (Pisces). Brown, M.D., Thomas, D., Kay, B.H. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Field trials with methoprene, temephos, and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis for the control of larval Culiseta melanura. Woodrow, R.J., Howard, J.J., White, D.J. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Determination of toxicity of danitol, methoprene and neem formulation against stored grain pest, sitophilus oryzae L. Tabassum, R., Jahan, M., Azmi, M.A., Naqvi, S.N. Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. The isolation of two juvenile hormone-inducible genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Dubrovsky, E.B., Dubrovskaya, V.A., Bilderback, A.L., Berger, E.M. Dev. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. The juvenile hormone analogue, methoprene, inhibits ecdysterone induction of small heat shock protein gene expression. Berger, E.M., Goudie, K., Klieger, L., Berger, M., DeCato, R. Dev. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Vitellogenin mRNA in locust fat body: coordinate induction of two genes by a juvenile hormone analog. Dhadialla, T.S., Cook, K.E., Wyatt, G.R. Dev. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Control of oocyte maturation in sexually mature Drosophila females. Soller, M., Bownes, M., Kubli, E. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Experience-expectant plasticity in the mushroom bodies of the honeybee. Fahrbach, S.E., Moore, D., Capaldi, E.A., Farris, S.M., Robinson, G.E. Learn. Mem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of experience and juvenile hormone on the organization of the mushroom bodies of honey bees. Withers, G.S., Fahrbach, S.E., Robinson, G.E. J. Neurobiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. A Drosophila melanogaster mutant resistant to a chemical analog of juvenile hormone. Wilson, T.G., Fabian, J. Dev. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of juvenile hormone mimics on larval development and metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster. Riddiford, L.M., Ashburner, M. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of methoprene, its metabolites, and breakdown products on retinoid-activated pathways in transfected cell lines. Schoff, P.K., Ankley, G.T. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Competition between juvenile hormone antagonist precocene II and juvenile hormone analog: methoprene in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Fodor, A., Deák, P., Kiss, I. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  26. A solid phase extraction reversed-phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of methoprene, permethrin and selected metabolites in rat plasma and urine. Abu-Qare, A.W., Abou-Donia, M.B. Biomed. Chromatogr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. A juvenile hormone agonist reveals distinct developmental pathways mediated by ecdysone-inducible broad complex transcription factors. Restifo, L.L., Wilson, T.G. Dev. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation blocks juvenile hormone action. Kethidi, D.R., Li, Y., Palli, S.R. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Aedes aegypti transferrin. Gene structure, expression pattern, and regulation. Harizanova, N., Georgieva, T., Dunkov, B.C., Yoshiga, T., Law, J.H. Insect Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Regulation of JH epoxide hydrolase versus JH esterase activity in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, by juvenile hormone and xenobiotics. Anspaugh, D.D., Roe, R.M. J. Insect Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Mechanisms of midgut remodeling: Juvenile hormone analog methoprene blocks midgut metamorphosis by modulating ecdysone action. Wu, Y., Parthasarathy, R., Bai, H., Palli, S.R. Mech. Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Juvenile hormone mediates a trade-off between primary and secondary sexual traits in stalk-eyed flies. Fry, C.L. Evol. Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Hormonal control of ventral diaphragm myogenesis during metamorphosis of the moth, Manduca sexta. Champlin, D.T., Reiss, S.E., Truman, J.W. Dev. Genes Evol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. The effect of methoprene as a feed additive on house fly emergence in poultry houses. Breeden, G.C., Turner, E.C., Beane, W.L., Miller, R.W., Pickens, L.C. Poult. Sci. (1981) [Pubmed]
  35. Nucleotide sequence of vitellogenin mRNA in the bean bug, Riptortus clavatus: analysis of processing in the fat body and ovary. Hirai, M., Watanabe, D., Kiyota, A., Chinzei, Y. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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