The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Release of metal in vivo from stressed and nonstressed maxillofacial fracture plates and screws.

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the release of metal into the adjacent tissues from stressed and nonstressed titanium and stainless steel miniplates and screws. STUDY DESIGN: Two miniplates were inserted into the cranial vaults of 12 beagle dogs while they were under general endotracheal anesthesia. One miniplate was shaped to fit the curvature of the skull (control). Another miniplate, made of the same material, was bent in a curve until the midpoint was raised 3 mm above the ends. Screws were inserted and tightened until the plate conformed to the skull curvature, creating stresses in the system. Four animals (2 each, having titanium or stainless steel plates and screws) were killed after 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Metallosis of adjacent soft tissues was assessed qualitatively. Miniplates and screws were removed, and adjacent soft tissue and bone was excised. Titanium, iron, chromium, nickel, and aluminum levels were assayed by ultraviolet/visible light and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nonparametric statistical methods were used for data analysis. RESULTS: There was no clear relationship between pigmentation of soft tissue adjacent to the miniplates and screws and the concentrations of metal present. The data did not demonstrate any consistent differences in the concentrations of metallic elements next to stressed and nonstressed (control) miniplates and screws of either material. CONCLUSION: Stresses arising through poor contouring of miniplates do not appear to influence the extent of release of metal into the adjacent tissues.[1]


  1. Release of metal in vivo from stressed and nonstressed maxillofacial fracture plates and screws. Matthew, I.R., Frame, J.W. Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics. (2000) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities