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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Biliary excretion of iodipamide.

Conflicting data have been reported concerning the optimum dose and rate of administration of iodipamide required to obtain maximum radiographic opacification of the biliary tree during intravenous cholangiography. Experiments were performed in dogs to determine the effect of plasma concentration on the excretion and concentration of iodipamide in the bile and urine during a steady state of infusion and excretion. The data indicate that a hyperbolic relation exists between the plasma concentration and both the biliary concentration and the total biliary excretion. A mathematical expression of these relations is presented. At low plasma concentrations, iodipamide was not excreted in the urine. However, at high plasma concentrations, urinary excretion increased sharply. It appears that a biliary concentration of iodipamide sufficient to achieve adequate radiographic visualization of the biliary tree can be obtained without significant renal excretion by constant infusion of iodipamide at an appropriate rate in dogs. Stepwise increase in the infusion rate until adequate radiographic visualization is obtained may be the best method for performing intravenous cholangiography to obtain visualization with the least amount of iodipamide in order to minimize toxicity.[1]


  1. Biliary excretion of iodipamide. Loeb, P.M., Berk, R.N., Feld, G.K., Wheeler, H.O. Gastroenterology (1975) [Pubmed]
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