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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Anions modulate the potency of geranylgeranyl-protein transferase I inhibitors.

We have identified and characterized potent and specific inhibitors of geranylgeranyl-protein transferase type I (GGPTase I), as well as dual inhibitors of GGPTase I and farnesyl-protein transferase. Many of these inhibitors require the presence of phosphate anions for maximum activity against GGPTase I in vitro. Inhibitors with a strong anion dependence were competitive with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), rather than with the peptide substrate, which had served as the original template for inhibitor design. One of the most effective anions was ATP, which at low millimolar concentrations increased the potency of GGPTase I inhibitors up to several hundred-fold. In the case of clinical candidate l-778,123, this increase in potency was shown to result from two major interactions: competitive binding of inhibitor and GGPP, and competitive binding of ATP and GGPP. At 5 mm, ATP caused an increase in the apparent K(d) for the GGPP-GGPTase I interaction from 20 pm to 4 nm, resulting in correspondingly tighter inhibitor binding. A subset of very potent GGPP-competitive inhibitors displayed slow tight binding to GGPTase I with apparent on and off rates on the order of 10(6) m(-)1 s(-)1 and 10(-)3 s(-)1, respectively. Slow binding and the anion requirement suggest that these inhibitors may act as transition state analogs. After accounting for anion requirement, slow binding, and mechanism of competition, the structure-activity relationship determined in vitro correlated well with the inhibition of processing of GGPTase I substrate Rap1a in vivo.[1]


  1. Anions modulate the potency of geranylgeranyl-protein transferase I inhibitors. Huber, H.E., Robinson, R.G., Watkins, A., Nahas, D.D., Abrams, M.T., Buser, C.A., Lobell, R.B., Patrick, D., Anthony, N.J., Dinsmore, C.J., Graham, S.L., Hartman, G.D., Lumma, W.C., Williams, T.M., Heimbrook, D.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
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