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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Divergence in fitness and evolution of drug resistance in experimental populations of Candida albicans.

The dissemination and persistence of drug-resistant organisms in nature depends on the relative fitness of sensitive and resistant genotypes. While resistant genotypes are expected to be at an advantage compared to less resistant genotypes in the presence of drug, resistance may incur a cost; resistant genotypes may be at a disadvantage in the absence of drug. We measured the fitness of replicate experimental populations of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans founded from a single progenitor cell in a previous study (L. E. Cowen, D. Sanglard, D. Calabrese, C. Sirjusingh, J. B. Anderson, and L. M. Kohn, J. Bacteriol. 182:1515-1522, 2000) and evolved in the presence, and in the absence, of the antifungal agent fluconazole. Fitness was measured both in the presence and in the absence of fluconazole by placing each evolved population in direct competition with the drug-sensitive ancestor and measuring the reproductive output of each competitor in the mixture. Populations evolved in the presence of drug diverged in fitness. Any significant cost of resistance, indicated by reduced fitness in the absence of drug, was eliminated with further evolution. Populations evolved in the absence of drug showed more uniform increases in fitness under both conditions. Fitness in the competition assays was not predicted by measurements of the MICs, doubling times, or stationary-phase cell densities of the competitors in isolation, suggesting the importance of interactions between mixed genotypes in competitions.[1]


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