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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Drug Resistance

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Disease relevance of Drug Resistance


Psychiatry related information on Drug Resistance


High impact information on Drug Resistance


Chemical compound and disease context of Drug Resistance


Biological context of Drug Resistance


Anatomical context of Drug Resistance


Associations of Drug Resistance with chemical compounds


Gene context of Drug Resistance

  • Acquisition of drug resistance is linked to a specific secondary somatic mutation, EGFR T790M [2].
  • IMPLICATIONS: Additional studies are needed to determine whether functional activity of P-glycoprotein, measured by rhodamine 123 efflux, is directly related to clinical drug resistance [31].
  • The expression of several drug-resistance genes, including MRP and p53, increases with advancing stage of human prostate cancer [32].
  • Pgp is expressed in normal tissues, and its (over)expression in tumor cells contributes to their drug resistance [33].
  • Given its structure, drug resistance profile and subcellular localization, MRP4 probably functions as an amphipathic anion efflux pump whose substrate range includes glutamate and phosphate conjugates [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Drug Resistance


  1. DnaE2 polymerase contributes to in vivo survival and the emergence of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Boshoff, H.I., Reed, M.B., Barry, C.E., Mizrahi, V. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Inherited susceptibility to lung cancer may be associated with the T790M drug resistance mutation in EGFR. Bell, D.W., Gore, I., Okimoto, R.A., Godin-Heymann, N., Sordella, R., Mulloy, R., Sharma, S.V., Brannigan, B.W., Mohapatra, G., Settleman, J., Haber, D.A. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Extracellular matrix proteins protect small cell lung cancer cells against apoptosis: a mechanism for small cell lung cancer growth and drug resistance in vivo. Sethi, T., Rintoul, R.C., Moore, S.M., MacKinnon, A.C., Salter, D., Choo, C., Chilvers, E.R., Dransfield, I., Donnelly, S.C., Strieter, R., Haslett, C. Nat. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Reversal of adriamycin resistance by verapamil in human ovarian cancer. Rogan, A.M., Hamilton, T.C., Young, R.C., Klecker, R.W., Ozols, R.F. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Selection for precise chromosomal targeting of a dominant marker by homologous recombination. Dorin, J.R., Inglis, J.D., Porteous, D.J. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Flunitrazepam: more than a date rape drug. Rickert, V.I., Wiemann, C.M., Berenson, A.B. Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Risk factors and response to antibiotic therapy in adults with bacteremic pneumonia caused by penicillin-resistant pneumococci. Pallares, R., Gudiol, F., Liñares, J., Ariza, J., Rufi, G., Murgui, L., Dorca, J., Viladrich, P.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Unstable amplification of an altered dihydrofolate reductase gene associated with double-minute chromosomes. Haber, D.A., Schimke, R.T. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. World Bank meeting concludes drug resistance should not prevent distribution of antiretroviral therapy to poor countries. Kuritzkes, D., Lange, J., Zewdie, D. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. A bacterial antibiotic-resistance gene that complements the human multidrug-resistance P-glycoprotein gene. van Veen, H.W., Callaghan, R., Soceneantu, L., Sardini, A., Konings, W.N., Higgins, C.F. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. The role of vesicular transport proteins in synaptic transmission and neural degeneration. Liu, Y., Edwards, R.H. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Tamoxifen: toxicities and drug resistance during the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Jordan, V.C. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Cross-resistance to the lipid-soluble antifolate trimetrexate in human carcinoma cells with the multidrug-resistant phenotype. Assaraf, Y.G., Molina, A., Schimke, R.T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Reversal of daunorubicin resistance in P388/ADR cells by itraconazole. Gupta, S., Kim, J., Gollapudi, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Overview from the International Conference on Long-Term Tamoxifen Therapy for Breast Cancer. Jordan, V.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Downregulation of mdr-1 expression by 8-Cl-cAMP in multidrug resistant MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Scala, S., Budillon, A., Zhan, Z., Cho-Chung, Y.S., Jefferson, J., Tsokos, M., Bates, S.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. The drug resistance-related protein LRP is the human major vault protein. Scheffer, G.L., Wijngaard, P.L., Flens, M.J., Izquierdo, M.A., Slovak, M.L., Pinedo, H.M., Meijer, C.J., Clevers, H.C., Scheper, R.J. Nat. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Selection of drug-resistant bone marrow cells in vivo after retroviral transfer of human MDR1. Sorrentino, B.P., Brandt, S.J., Bodine, D., Gottesman, M., Pastan, I., Cline, A., Nienhuis, A.W. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Differential disruption of genomic integrity and cell cycle regulation in normal human fibroblasts by the HPV oncoproteins. White, A.E., Livanos, E.M., Tlsty, T.D. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. BCR/ABL regulates mammalian RecA homologs, resulting in drug resistance. Slupianek, A., Schmutte, C., Tombline, G., Nieborowska-Skorska, M., Hoser, G., Nowicki, M.O., Pierce, A.J., Fishel, R., Skorski, T. Mol. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. The polymerase L528M mutation cooperates with nucleotide binding-site mutations, increasing hepatitis B virus replication and drug resistance. Ono, S.K., Kato, N., Shiratori, Y., Kato, J., Goto, T., Schinazi, R.F., Carrilho, F.J., Omata, M. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Bcl-2-mediated drug resistance: inhibition of apoptosis by blocking nuclear factor of activated T lymphocytes (NFAT)-induced Fas ligand transcription. Srivastava, R.K., Sasaki, C.Y., Hardwick, J.M., Longo, D.L. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Various methods of analysis of mdr-1/P-glycoprotein in human colon cancer cell lines. Herzog, C.E., Trepel, J.B., Mickley, L.A., Bates, S.E., Fojo, A.T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Systemic toxic effects associated with high-dose verapamil infusion and chemotherapy administration. Pennock, G.D., Dalton, W.S., Roeske, W.R., Appleton, C.P., Mosley, K., Plezia, P., Miller, T.P., Salmon, S.E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Dominant expression of multiple drug resistance after in vitro X-irradiation exposure in intraspecific Chinese hamster ovary hybrid cells. McClean, S., Hosking, L.K., Hill, B.T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. High resistance to cisplatin in human ovarian cancer cell lines is associated with marked increase of glutathione synthesis. Godwin, A.K., Meister, A., O'Dwyer, P.J., Huang, C.S., Hamilton, T.C., Anderson, M.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Biochemical modulation of Cisplatin mechanisms of action: enhancement of antitumor activity and circumvention of drug resistance. Fuertes, M.A., Alonso, C., Pérez, J.M. Chem. Rev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. P-glycoproteins and multidrug resistance. Bellamy, W.T. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Topoisomerase IV, not gyrase, decatenates products of site-specific recombination in Escherichia coli. Zechiedrich, E.L., Khodursky, A.B., Cozzarelli, N.R. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Glycopeptide antibiotic resistance. Pootoolal, J., Neu, J., Wright, G.D. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Activity of P-glycoprotein in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia determined by a flow cytometric assay. Ludescher, C., Hilbe, W., Eisterer, W., Preuss, E., Huber, C., Gotwald, M., Hofmann, J., Thaler, J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Regulation of expression of the multidrug resistance protein MRP1 by p53 in human prostate cancer cells. Sullivan, G.F., Yang, J.M., Vassil, A., Yang, J., Bash-Babula, J., Hait, W.N. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Altered pharmacokinetics of vinblastine in Mdr1a P-glycoprotein-deficient Mice. van Asperen, J., Schinkel, A.H., Beijnen, J.H., Nooijen, W.J., Borst, P., van Tellingen, O. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Analysis of the MRP4 drug resistance profile in transfected NIH3T3 cells. Lee, K., Klein-Szanto, A.J., Kruh, G.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Gene rearrangement: a novel mechanism for MDR-1 gene activation. Mickley, L.A., Spengler, B.A., Knutsen, T.A., Biedler, J.L., Fojo, T. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Double-blind study to compare the selection of antibiotic resistance by amoxycillin or cephradine in the commensal flora. Lacey, R.W., Lord, V.L., Howson, G.L., Luxton, D.E., Trotter, I.S. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  37. TRAIL/Apo2L ligand selectively induces apoptosis and overcomes drug resistance in multiple myeloma: therapeutic applications. Mitsiades, C.S., Treon, S.P., Mitsiades, N., Shima, Y., Richardson, P., Schlossman, R., Hideshima, T., Anderson, K.C. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Polyclonal chemoprotection against temozolomide in a large-animal model of drug resistance gene therapy. Neff, T., Beard, B.C., Peterson, L.J., Anandakumar, P., Thompson, J., Kiem, H.P. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  39. TEL/AML1 gene fusion is related to in vitro drug sensitivity for L-asparaginase in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ramakers-van Woerden, N.L., Pieters, R., Loonen, A.H., Hubeek, I., van Drunen, E., Beverloo, H.B., Slater, R.M., Harbott, J., Seyfarth, J., van Wering, E.R., Hählen, K., Schmiegelow, K., Janka-Schaub, G.E., Veerman, A.J. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
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