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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Candida


High impact information on Candida

  • This Candida cph1/cph1 efg1/efg1 double mutant, locked in the yeast form, is avirulent in a mouse model [6].
  • Subjects with anergy (0 mm induration in reaction to PPD and candida antigens) were randomly assigned to receive either placebo (323 subjects) or six months of isoniazid (395) [7].
  • Initial findings suggested that the presence of candida enolase in the blood may be a novel marker for invasive candidiasis [1].
  • Candida enolase antigenemia is a novel marker for invasive candidiasis [1].
  • Candida albicans mutants lacking ICL1 are markedly less virulent in mice than the wild type [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Candida


Biological context of Candida


Anatomical context of Candida


Associations of Candida with chemical compounds

  • The bloodstream infection failed to clear in 12 patients in the amphotericin group and 15 in the fluconazole group; the species most commonly associated with failure was Candida albicans [2].
  • The codon CUG is read as serine in an asporogenic yeast Candida cylindracea [24].
  • Here we report another example of divergence from the universal code, this time in a non-spore-forming yeast Candida cylindracea, in which the universal codon for leucine, CUG, is used to code for serine [24].
  • D-Arabinitol was identified as a major metabolite of Candida species in human subjects [25].
  • Flucytosine treatment of Candida arthritis [26].

Gene context of Candida

  • Control of filament formation in Candida albicans by the transcriptional repressor TUP1 [27].
  • Suppression of hyphal formation in Candida albicans by mutation of a STE12 homolog [28].
  • Virulence-related surface glycoproteins in the yeast pathogen Candida glabrata are encoded in subtelomeric clusters and subject to RAP1- and SIR-dependent transcriptional silencing [29].
  • Phenotypic switching in Candida albicans is controlled by a SIR2 gene [30].
  • In the dimorphic fungus Candida albicans, the CHS2 gene encodes a chitin synthase that is expressed preferentially in the hyphal form [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Candida


  1. Detection of circulating candida enolase by immunoassay in patients with cancer and invasive candidiasis. Walsh, T.J., Hathorn, J.W., Sobel, J.D., Merz, W.G., Sanchez, V., Maret, S.M., Buckley, H.R., Pfaller, M.A., Schaufele, R., Sliva, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with amphotericin B for the treatment of candidemia in patients without neutropenia. Candidemia Study Group and the National Institute. Rex, J.H., Bennett, J.E., Sugar, A.M., Pappas, P.G., van der Horst, C.M., Edwards, J.E., Washburn, R.G., Scheld, W.M., Karchmer, A.W., Dine, A.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Oral azole drugs as systemic antifungal therapy. Como, J.A., Dismukes, W.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of levamisole on E-rosette-forming cells in vivo and in vitro in Hodgkin's disease. Ramot, B., Biniaminov, M., Shoham, C., Rosenthal, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Fluconazole versus itraconazole for candida esophagitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Candida Esophagitis. Barbaro, G., Barbarini, G., Calderon, W., Grisorio, B., Alcini, P., Di Lorenzo, G. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Nonfilamentous C. albicans mutants are avirulent. Lo, H.J., Köhler, J.R., DiDomenico, B., Loebenberg, D., Cacciapuoti, A., Fink, G.R. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. A trial of three regimens to prevent tuberculosis in Ugandan adults infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Uganda-Case Western Reserve University Research Collaboration. Whalen, C.C., Johnson, J.L., Okwera, A., Hom, D.L., Huebner, R., Mugyenyi, P., Mugerwa, R.D., Ellner, J.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. The glyoxylate cycle is required for fungal virulence. Lorenz, M.C., Fink, G.R. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Ketoconazole-resistant Candida esophagitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Tavitian, A., Raufman, J.P., Rosenthal, L.E., Weber, J., Webber, C.A., Dincsoy, H.P. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Incorporating chemical modification constraints into a dynamic programming algorithm for prediction of RNA secondary structure. Mathews, D.H., Disney, M.D., Childs, J.L., Schroeder, S.J., Zuker, M., Turner, D.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Dysfunction and thromboembolism associated with cardiac valve xenografts in adults. Geha, A.S., Holter, A.R., Langou, R.A., Laks, H., Hammond, G.L. Circulation (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of taxol on human neutrophils. Roberts, R.L., Nath, J., Friedman, M.M., Gallin, J.I. J. Immunol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Handicaps to host defense. Effects of hyperglycemia on C3 and Candida albicans. Hostetter, M.K. Diabetes (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular mimicry in Candida albicans. Role of an integrin analogue in adhesion of the yeast to human endothelium. Gustafson, K.S., Vercellotti, G.M., Bendel, C.M., Hostetter, M.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. A human T cell clone that mediates the monocyte procoagulant response to specific sensitizing antigen. Schwartz, B.S., Reitnauer, P.J., Hank, J.A., Sondel, P.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Hgc1, a novel hypha-specific G1 cyclin-related protein regulates Candida albicans hyphal morphogenesis. Zheng, X., Wang, Y., Wang, Y. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. NRG1 represses yeast-hypha morphogenesis and hypha-specific gene expression in Candida albicans. Murad, A.M., Leng, P., Straffon, M., Wishart, J., Macaskill, S., MacCallum, D., Schnell, N., Talibi, D., Marechal, D., Tekaia, F., d'Enfert, C., Gaillardin, C., Odds, F.C., Brown, A.J. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Attenuated virulence of chitin-deficient mutants of Candida albicans. Bulawa, C.E., Miller, D.W., Henry, L.K., Becker, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Activation of macrophages for enhanced release of superoxide anion and greater killing of Candida albicans by injection of muramyl dipeptide. Cummings, N.P., Pabst, M.J., Johnston, R.B. J. Exp. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Specific in vitro antimannan-rich antigen of Candida albicans antibody production by sensitized human blood lymphocytes. Durandy, A., Fischer, A., Griscelli, C. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Increased atherosclerosis in myeloperoxidase-deficient mice. Brennan, M.L., Anderson, M.M., Shih, D.M., Qu, X.D., Wang, X., Mehta, A.C., Lim, L.L., Shi, W., Hazen, S.L., Jacob, J.S., Crowley, J.R., Heinecke, J.W., Lusis, A.J. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Specific binding of antigen onto human T lymphocytes. Durandy, A., Fischer, A., Charron, D., Griscelli, C. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Modulation of the in vitro candidacidal activity of human neutrophil defensins by target cell metabolism and divalent cations. Lehrer, R.I., Ganz, T., Szklarek, D., Selsted, M.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. The codon CUG is read as serine in an asporogenic yeast Candida cylindracea. Kawaguchi, Y., Honda, H., Taniguchi-Morimura, J., Iwasaki, S. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Candidiasis: detection by gas-liquid chromatography of D-arabinitol, a fungal metabolite, in human serum. Kiehn, T.E., Bernard, E.M., Gold, J.W., Armstrong, D. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  26. Flucytosine treatment of Candida arthritis. Imbeau, S.A., Hanson, J., Langejans, G., D'Alessio, D. JAMA (1977) [Pubmed]
  27. Control of filament formation in Candida albicans by the transcriptional repressor TUP1. Braun, B.R., Johnson, A.D. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Suppression of hyphal formation in Candida albicans by mutation of a STE12 homolog. Liu, H., Köhler, J., Fink, G.R. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Virulence-related surface glycoproteins in the yeast pathogen Candida glabrata are encoded in subtelomeric clusters and subject to RAP1- and SIR-dependent transcriptional silencing. De Las Peñas, A., Pan, S.J., Castaño, I., Alder, J., Cregg, R., Cormack, B.P. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Phenotypic switching in Candida albicans is controlled by a SIR2 gene. Pérez-Martín, J., Uría, J.A., Johnson, A.D. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. A hyphal-specific chitin synthase gene (CHS2) is not essential for growth, dimorphism, or virulence of Candida albicans. Gow, N.A., Robbins, P.W., Lester, J.W., Brown, A.J., Fonzi, W.A., Chapman, T., Kinsman, O.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Molecular cloning and characterization of chitinase genes from Candida albicans. McCreath, K.J., Specht, C.A., Robbins, P.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Affinity chromatography and further characterization of the glucosyltransferases involved in hydroxydocosanoic acid sophoroside production in Candida bogoriensis. Breithaupt, T.B., Light, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  34. Induction, identification, and cell-free translation of mRNAs coding for peroxisomal proteins in Candida tropicalis. Fujiki, Y., Rachubinski, R.A., Zentella-Dehesa, A., Lazarow, P.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  35. DNA array studies demonstrate convergent regulation of virulence factors by Cph1, Cph2, and Efg1 in Candida albicans. Lane, S., Birse, C., Zhou, S., Matson, R., Liu, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
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