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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A unique spacer domain of synaptotagmin IV is essential for Golgi localization.

Synaptotagmin ( Syt) family members consist of six separate domains: a short amino terminus, a single transmembrane domain, a spacer domain, a C2A domain, a C2B domain and a short carboxyl (C) terminus. Despite sharing the same domain structures, several synaptotagmin isoforms show distinct subcellular localization. Syt IV is mainly localized at the Golgi, while Syt I, a possible Ca(2+)-sensor for secretory vesicles, is localized at dense-core vesicles and synaptic-like microvesicles in PC12 cells. In this study, we sought to identify the region responsible for the Golgi localization of Syt IV by immunocytochemical and biochemical analyses as a means of defining the distinct subcellular localization of the synaptotagmin family. We found that the unique C-terminus of the spacer domain (amino acid residues 73-144) between the transmembrane domain and the C2A domain is essential for the Golgi localization of Syt IV. In addition, the short C-terminus is probably involved in proper folding of the protein, especially the C2B domain. Without the C-terminus, Syt IVdeltaC proteins are not targeted to the Golgi and seem to colocalize with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker (i.e. induce crystalloid ER-like structures). On the basis of these results, we propose that the divergent spacer domain among synaptotagmin isoforms may contain certain signals that determine the final destination of each isoform.[1]


  1. A unique spacer domain of synaptotagmin IV is essential for Golgi localization. Fukuda, M., Ibata, K., Mikoshiba, K. J. Neurochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
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