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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

CYP21 mutations and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a common autosomal recessive disorder caused mainly by defects in the steroid 21-hydroxylase ( CYP21) gene. More than 90% of CAH cases are caused by mutations of the CYP21 gene on chromosome 6p21. 3. The wide range of CAH phenotypes is associated with multiple mutations known to affect 21-hydroxylase enzyme activity. To date, 56 different CYP21 mutations have been reported, mostly point mutations, but small deletions or insertions have been described too, as well as complete gene deletions. Fifteen mutations, constituting 90-95% of alleles, are derived from intergenic recombination of DNA sequences between the CYP21 gene and the highly homologous CYP21P pseudogene, while the remaining are spontaneous mutations. A reliable and accurate detection of CYP21 mutations is not only important for clinical diagnosis, but also for carrier detection as there is a high variability in the basal level of 17-hydroxyprogesterone between normal and heterozygous individuals. Several strategies based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-driven amplification with allele-specific oligonucleotides to the CYP21 gene have been developed. It has been demonstrated that one reaction for PCR amplification of the CYP21 gene and the chimeric CYP21P/ CYP21 gene using mixed primers in combination with nested PCR and single-strand conformation polymorphism is considered highly efficient and accurate for molecular diagnosis of CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.[1]


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