The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

N-glucuronidation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and N_hydroxy-PhIP by specific human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

Glucuronidation is a major metabolic pathway in the biotransformation of many xenobiotics. Recent studies have shown that in humans, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)-mediated glucuronidation plays a critical role in the detoxification of food-borne carcinogenic heterocyclic amines. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most abundant carcinogenic heterocyclic amine found in well-cooked meats, has been shown to be extensively glucuronidated in humans. To determine which UGT isozymes are involved in the biotransformation of PhIP and the cytochrome P4501A2-mediated reactive intermediate N-hydroxy-PhIP, microsomes expressing human UGT1A1, -1A4, -1A6 or -1A9 were incubated with PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP and the reaction products analyzed by HPLC and ESI-MS. Incubations containing N-hydroxy-PhIP and UGT1A1 expressing microsomes, with an apparent Km of 4.58 microM and a Vmax of 4.18 pmol/min/mg protein, had the highest capacity to convert N-hydroxy-PhIP to N-hydroxy-PhIP-N2-glucuronide. Microsomes expressing UGT1A9 produced N-hydroxy-PhIP-N3-glucuronide at the highest rate with an apparent Km and Vmax of 3.73 microM and 4.07 pmol/min/mg, respectively. A third previously undefined glucuronide accounted for 31% of the total glucuronides formed from the UGT1A4 expressing microsomes. No glucuronide conjugates were detected from microsomes expressing UGT1A6. Incubations containing PhIP as substrate formed direct PhIP-glucuronides in microsomes expressing UGT1A1, UGT1A4 and UGT1A9 but at levels averaging 53-fold lower than when N-hydroxy-PhIP was used as the substrate. Knowing the glucuronidation capacity of the specific UGT isozymes involved in PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronidation should help in determining the individual susceptibility to the potential cancer risk from exposure to PhIP.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities