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Disease relevance of Microsomes


Psychiatry related information on Microsomes


High impact information on Microsomes

  • Ribosome-stripped microsomes were digested with proteases to sever cytoplasmic domains of SRalpha, SRbeta, TRAM, and the Sec61 complex [8].
  • In the microsomes, these were generated either by glucose removal from the original triglucosylated core oligosaccharide by glucosidases I and II or by reglucosylation of already unglucosylated high mannose glycans [9].
  • ERN1 encodes a 1115 amino acid transmembrane protein (Ern1p) whose glycosylated N-terminal portion is located inside microsomes and whose cytoplasmic C-terminal portion carries an essential protein kinase activity [10].
  • Microsomes prepared from Raji and T1 cells show similar levels of assembly, whereas assembly in T2 microsomes is 10-fold lower [11].
  • Metabolites of phenytoin were generated by incubation of phenytoin with rat hepatic microsomes in the presence of the epoxide hydrolase inhibitor 1,1,1-trichloropropene oxide (TCPO), which prevents the further metabolism of phenytoin to an inert metabolite [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Microsomes


Biological context of Microsomes


Anatomical context of Microsomes

  • However, in a cell-free system of islet microsomes, cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose (cADP-ribose), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) metabolite, but not IP3, induced calcium release [19].
  • Incubation of BP with liver microsomes from mice that received BHA 2,4, or 8 hours before being killed resulted in less binding of BP metabolites to added DNA than occurred with control microsomes [23].
  • GSH stimulated T3-neogenesis in microsomes incubated in the absence of cytosol, i.e., in buffer, whereas NADPH did not [24].
  • Similarly, the concentrations of glucose transporters are reduced with fasting in both the plasma membranes from insulin-stimulated cells from 38 +/- 5 to 18 +/- 3 pmol/mg of membrane protein and the low density microsomes from basal cells from 68 +/- 8 to 34 +/- 9 pmol/mg of membrane protein [25].
  • In contrast, only minimal changes or no changes at all were observed for electrogenic taurocholate transport in "cholestatic" canalicular membranes and total microsomes, respectively [26].

Associations of Microsomes with chemical compounds


Gene context of Microsomes

  • To investigate the possible role in these extrahepatic tissues of the CYP3A microsomal hemoproteins, we analyzed placental and endometrial microsomes on Western blots developed with an anti-human CYP3A antibody [32].
  • YDJ1p cofractionates with nuclei and also microsomes, suggesting that its perinuclear localization reflects association with the ER [33].
  • Yeast microsomes contain a heptameric Sec complex involved in post-translational protein transport that is composed of a heterotrimeric Sec61p complex and a tetrameric Sec62-Sec63 complex [34].
  • Immunofluorescent and subcellular analyses show that STCH migrates predominantly as a 60 kDa species and is enriched in a membrane-bound microsome fraction [35].
  • Vesicle budding and protein transport from ER membranes containing normal levels of Sec12p is inhibited in vitro by addition of microsomes isolated from a Sec12p-overproducing strain [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Microsomes


  1. Rapid mobilization of Ca2+ from rat insulinoma microsomes by inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate. Prentki, M., Biden, T.J., Janjic, D., Irvine, R.F., Berridge, M.J., Wollheim, C.B. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Nicotine, cotinine, and anabasine inhibit aromatase in human trophoblast in vitro. Barbieri, R.L., Gochberg, J., Ryan, K.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Pretranslational suppression of a glucose transporter protein causes insulin resistance in adipocytes from patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and obesity. Garvey, W.T., Maianu, L., Huecksteadt, T.P., Birnbaum, M.J., Molina, J.M., Ciaraldi, T.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of anti-liver-kidney microsome antibody (anti-LKM1) from hepatitis C virus-positive and -negative sera. Yamamoto, A.M., Cresteil, D., Homberg, J.C., Alvarez, F. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Transformation of 4-cholesten-3-one and 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one into cholestanol and bile acids in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. Salen, G., Shefer, S., Tint, G.S. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of dietary fat saturation on acylcoenzyme A:-cholesterol acyltransferase activity of Ehrlich cell microsomes. Brenneman, D.E., Kaduce, T., Spector, A.A. J. Lipid Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  7. Aromatization of androstenedione by microsomes from the human placenta after gestational alcohol consumption. Sheean, L.A. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of Sec61alpha in the regulated transfer of the ribosome-nascent chain complex from the signal recognition particle to the translocation channel. Song, W., Raden, D., Mandon, E.C., Gilmore, R. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Glucose trimming and reglucosylation determine glycoprotein association with calnexin in the endoplasmic reticulum. Hebert, D.N., Foellmer, B., Helenius, A. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. A transmembrane protein with a cdc2+/CDC28-related kinase activity is required for signaling from the ER to the nucleus. Mori, K., Ma, W., Gething, M.J., Sambrook, J. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. ATP is required for in vitro assembly of MHC class I antigens but not for transfer of peptides across the ER membrane. Lévy, F., Gabathuler, R., Larsson, R., Kvist, S. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Halothane hepatitis. Detection of a constitutional susceptibility factor. Farrell, G., Prendergast, D., Murray, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Cytochrome P4502E1 hydroxyethyl radical adducts as the major antigen in autoantibody formation among alcoholics. Clot, P., Albano, E., Eliasson, E., Tabone, M., Aricò, S., Israel, Y., Moncada, C., Ingelman-Sundberg, M. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Human anti-endoplasmic reticulum autoantibodies appearing in a drug-induced hepatitis are directed against a human liver cytochrome P-450 that hydroxylates the drug. Beaune, P., Dansette, P.M., Mansuy, D., Kiffel, L., Finck, M., Amar, C., Leroux, J.P., Homberg, J.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Anticonvulsant-induced aplastic anemia: increased susceptibility to toxic drug metabolites in vitro. Gerson, W.T., Fine, D.G., Spielberg, S.P., Sensenbrenner, L.L. Blood (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. The arachidonic acid metabolic capacity of canine myocardium is increased during healing of acute myocardial infarction. McCluskey, E.R., Corr, P.B., Lee, B.I., Saffitz, J.E., Needleman, P. Circ. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of nonspecific phospholipid transfer protein on cholesterol esterification in microsomes from Morris hepatomas. van Heusden, G.P., van der Krift, T.P., Hostetler, K.Y., Wirtz, K.W. Cancer Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Inositol trisphosphate receptor localization in brain: variable stoichiometry with protein kinase C. Worley, P.F., Baraban, J.M., Colvin, J.S., Snyder, S.H. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Cyclic ADP-ribose in insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. Takasawa, S., Nata, K., Yonekura, H., Okamoto, H. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. 15-Hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoic acid inhibits human vascular cyclooxygenase. Potential role in diabetic vascular disease. Setty, B.N., Stuart, M.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Drug metabolism by rat and human hepatic microsomes in response to interaction with H2-receptor antagonists. Knodell, R.G., Holtzman, J.L., Crankshaw, D.L., Steele, N.M., Stanley, L.N. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Phosphorylation by CK2 and MAPK enhances calnexin association with ribosomes. Chevet, E., Wong, H.N., Gerber, D., Cochet, C., Fazel, A., Cameron, P.H., Gushue, J.N., Thomas, D.Y., Bergeron, J.J. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of administration to mice of butylated hydroxyanisole by oral intubation on benzo[a]pyrene-induced pulmonary adenoma formation and metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene. Speier, J.L., Lam, L.K., Wattenberg, L.W. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  24. Observations on the factors that control the generation of triiodothyronine from thyroxine in rat liver and the nature of the defect induced by fasting. Balsam, A., Ingbar, S.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  25. Divergent mechanisms for the insulin resistant and hyperresponsive glucose transport in adipose cells from fasted and refed rats. Alterations in both glucose transporter number and intrinsic activity. Kahn, B.B., Simpson, I.A., Cushman, S.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Ethinylestradiol treatment induces multiple canalicular membrane transport alterations in rat liver. Bossard, R., Stieger, B., O'Neill, B., Fricker, G., Meier, P.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. The human glucose transporter can insert posttranslationally into microsomes. Mueckler, M., Lodish, H.F. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Assembly of the endoplasmic reticulum phospholipid bilayer: the phosphatidylcholine transporter. Bishop, W.R., Bell, R.M. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Identification of an enzyme in platelet microsomes which generates thromboxane A2 from prostaglandin endoperoxides. Needleman, P., Moncada, S., Bunting, S., Vane, J.R., Hamberg, M., Samuelsson, B. Nature (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. A saturable receptor for 32P-inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate in hepatocytes and neutrophils. Spät, A., Bradford, P.G., McKinney, J.S., Rubin, R.P., Putney, J.W. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  31. Inhibition of human estrogen synthetase (aromatase) by flavones. Kellis, J.T., Vickery, L.E. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. Identification of the fetal liver cytochrome CYP3A7 in human endometrium and placenta. Schuetz, J.D., Kauma, S., Guzelian, P.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Characterization of YDJ1: a yeast homologue of the bacterial dnaJ protein. Caplan, A.J., Douglas, M.G. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. A second trimeric complex containing homologs of the Sec61p complex functions in protein transport across the ER membrane of S. cerevisiae. Finke, K., Plath, K., Panzner, S., Prehn, S., Rapoport, T.A., Hartmann, E., Sommer, T. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Stch encodes the 'ATPase core' of a microsomal stress 70 protein. Otterson, G.A., Flynn, G.C., Kratzke, R.A., Coxon, A., Johnston, P.G., Kaye, F.J. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  36. Sec12p-dependent membrane binding of the small GTP-binding protein Sar1p promotes formation of transport vesicles from the ER. d'Enfert, C., Wuestehube, L.J., Lila, T., Schekman, R. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  37. Human adipocyte glucose transport system. Biochemical and functional heterogeneity of hexose carriers. Matthaei, S., Garvey, W.T., Horuk, R., Hueckstaedt, T.P., Olefsky, J.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  38. Unique enzymes of purified microsomes from pig fundic mucosa. K+-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase and K+-stimulated pNPPase. Forte, J.G., Ganser, A., Beesley, R., Forte, T.M. Gastroenterology (1975) [Pubmed]
  39. Drosophila UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase: sequence and characterization of an enzyme that distinguishes between denatured and native proteins. Parker, C.G., Fessler, L.I., Nelson, R.E., Fessler, J.H. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  40. Determination of the membrane topology of the phenobarbital-inducible rat liver cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme PB-4 using site-specific antibodies. De Lemos-Chiarandini, C., Frey, A.B., Sabatini, D.D., Kreibich, G. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
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